# Henrik Singmann

#### 16 packages on CRAN

Main functionality is to provide the algorithmic complexity for short strings, an approximation of the Kolmogorov Complexity of a short string using the coding theorem method (see ?acss). The database containing the complexity is provided in the data only package acss.data, this package provides functions accessing the data such as prob_random returning the posterior probability that a given string was produced by a random process. In addition, two traditional (but problematic) measures of complexity are also provided: entropy and change complexity.

Data only package providing the algorithmic complexity of short strings, computed using the coding theorem method. For a given set of symbols in a string, all possible or a large number of random samples of Turing machines (TM) with a given number of states (e.g., 5) and number of symbols corresponding to the number of symbols in the strings were simulated until they reached a halting state or failed to end. This package contains data on 4.5 million strings from length 1 to 12 simulated on TMs with 2, 4, 5, 6, and 9 symbols. The complexity of the string corresponds to the distribution of the halting states of the TMs.

Convenience functions for analyzing factorial experiments using ANOVA or mixed models. aov_ez(), aov_car(), and aov_4() allow specification of between, within (i.e., repeated-measures), or mixed (i.e., split-plot) ANOVAs for data in long format (i.e., one observation per row), automatically aggregating multiple observations per individual and cell of the design. mixed() fits mixed models using lme4::lmer() and computes p-values for all fixed effects using either Kenward-Roger or Satterthwaite approximation for degrees of freedom (LMM only), parametric bootstrap (LMMs and GLMMs), or likelihood ratio tests (LMMs and GLMMs). afex_plot() provides a high-level interface for interaction or one-way plots using ggplot2, combining raw data and model estimates. afex uses type 3 sums of squares as default (imitating commercial statistical software).

Provides the probability density function (PDF) of the diffusion decision model (DDM; e.g., Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008, <doi:10.1162/neco.2008.12-06-420>) with across-trial variability in the drift rate. Because the PDF of the DDM contains an infinite sum, it needs to be approximated. 'fddm' implements all published approximations (Navarro & Fuss, 2009, <doi:10.1016/j.jmp.2009.02.003>; Gondan, Blurton, & Kesselmeier, 2014, <doi:10.1016/j.jmp.2014.05.002>) plus new approximations. All approximations are implemented purely in 'C++' providing faster speed than existing packages.

Provides a complete environment for Bayesian inference using a variety of different samplers (see ?LaplacesDemon for an overview). The README describes the history of the package development process.

Provides a user-friendly way for the analysis of multinomial processing tree (MPT) models (e.g., Riefer, D. M., and Batchelder, W. H. [1988]. Multinomial modeling and the measurement of cognitive processes. Psychological Review, 95, 318-339) for single and multiple datasets. The main functions perform model fitting and model selection. Model selection can be done using AIC, BIC, or the Fisher Information Approximation (FIA) a measure based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) framework. The model and restrictions can be specified in external files or within an R script in an intuitive syntax or using the context-free language for MPTs. The 'classical' .EQN file format for model files is also supported. Besides MPTs, this package can fit a wide variety of other cognitive models such as SDT models (see fit.model). It also supports multicore fitting and FIA calculation (using the snowfall package), can generate or bootstrap data for simulations, and plot predicted versus observed data.

Statistical or cognitive modeling usually requires a number of more or less arbitrary choices creating one specific path through a 'garden of forking paths'. The multiverse approach (Steegen, Tuerlinckx, Gelman, & Vanpaemel, 2016, <doi:10.1177/1745691616658637>) offers a principled alternative in which results for all possible combinations of reasonable modeling choices are reported. MPTmultiverse performs a multiverse analysis for multinomial processing tree (MPT, Riefer & Batchelder, 1988, <doi:10.1037/0033-295X.95.3.318>) models combining maximum-likelihood/frequentist and Bayesian estimation approaches with different levels of pooling (i.e., data aggregation). For the frequentist approaches, no pooling (with and without parametric or nonparametric bootstrap) and complete pooling are implemented using MPTinR <https://cran.r-project.org/package=MPTinR>. For the Bayesian approaches, no pooling, complete pooling, and three different variants of partial pooling are implemented using TreeBUGS <https://cran.r-project.org/package=TreeBUGS>. The main function is fit_mpt() who performs the multiverse analysis in one call.

Provides response time distributions (density/PDF, distribution function/CDF, quantile function, and random generation): (a) Ratcliff diffusion model (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008, <doi:10.1162/neco.2008.12-06-420>) based on C code by Andreas and Jochen Voss and (b) linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008, <doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2007.12.002>) with different distributions underlying the drift rate.

Provides utilities to describe posterior distributions and Bayesian models. It includes point-estimates such as Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), measures of dispersion (Highest Density Interval - HDI; Kruschke, 2015 <doi:10.1016/C2012-0-00477-2>) and indices used for null-hypothesis testing (such as ROPE percentage, pd and Bayes factors).

Provides functions for estimating marginal likelihoods, Bayes factors, posterior model probabilities, and normalizing constants in general, via different versions of bridge sampling (Meng & Wong, 1996, <http://www3.stat.sinica.edu.tw/statistica/j6n4/j6n43/j6n43.htm>). Gronau, Singmann, & Wagenmakers (2020) <doi:10.18637/jss.v092.i10>.

Obtain estimated marginal means (EMMs) for many linear, generalized linear, and mixed models. Compute contrasts or linear functions of EMMs, trends, and comparisons of slopes. Plots and other displays. Least-squares means are discussed, and the term "estimated marginal means" is suggested, in Searle, Speed, and Milliken (1980) Population marginal means in the linear model: An alternative to least squares means, The American Statistician 34(4), 216-221 <doi:10.1080/00031305.1980.10483031>.

Graceful 'ggplot'-based graphics and utility functions for working with generalized additive models (GAMs) fitted using the 'mgcv' package. Provides a reimplementation of the plot() method for GAMs that 'mgcv' provides, as well as 'tidyverse' compatible representations of estimated smooths.

Fit linear and generalized linear mixed-effects models. The models and their components are represented using S4 classes and methods. The core computational algorithms are implemented using the 'Eigen' C++ library for numerical linear algebra and 'RcppEigen' "glue".

Fit response-time extended multinomial processing tree (RT-MPT) models by Klauer and Kellen (2018) <doi:10.1016/j.jmp.2017.12.003>. The RT-MPT class not only incorporate frequencies like traditional multinomial processing tree (MPT) models, but also latencies. This enables it to estimate process completion times and encoding plus motor execution times next to the process probabilities of traditional MPTs. 'rtmpt' is a Bayesian framework and posterior samples are sampled using a Metropolis-Gibbs sampler like the one described in the Klauer and Kellen (2018), but with some modifications. Other than in the original C++ program we use the free and open source GNU Scientific Library (GSL). There is also the possibility to suppress single process completion times.