Bowley

0th

Percentile

Bowley's data on values of British and Irish trade, 1855-1899

In one of the first statistical textbooks, Arthur Bowley (1901) used these data to illustrate an arithmetic and graphical analysis of time-series data using the total value of British and Irish exports from 1855-1899. He presented a line graph of the time-series data, supplemented by overlaid line graphs of 3-, 5- and 10-year moving averages. His goal was to show that while the initial series showed wide variability, moving averages made the series progressively smoother.

Keywords
datasets
Usage
data(Bowley)
Format

A data frame with 45 observations on the following 2 variables.

Year

Year, from 1855-1899

Value

total value of British and Irish exports (millions of Pounds)

• Bowley
Examples
# NOT RUN {
data(Bowley)

# plot the data
with(Bowley,plot(Year, Value, type='b',
ylab="Value of British and Irish Exports",
main="Bowley's example of the method of smoothing curves"))

# find moving averages-- use center alignment (requires width=ODD)
require(gtools, warn.conflicts=FALSE)
mav3<-running(BowleyValue, width=3, align="center") mav5<-running(BowleyValue, width=5, align="center")
mav9<-running(BowleyValue, width=9, align="center") lines(BowleyYear[2:44], mav3, col='blue', lty=2)
lines(Bowley$Year[3:43], mav5, col='green3', lty=3) lines(Bowley$Year[5:41], mav9, col='brown', lty=4)