`summaryM`

summarizes the variables listed in an S formula,
computing descriptive statistics and optionally statistical tests for
group differences. This function is typically used when there are
multiple left-hand-side variables that are independently against by
groups marked by a single right-hand-side variable. The summary
statistics may be passed to `print`

methods, `plot`

methods
for making annotated dot charts and extended box plots, and
`latex`

methods for typesetting tables using LaTeX. The
`html`

method uses `htmlTable::htmlTable`

to typeset the
table in html, by passing information to the `latex`

method with
`html=TRUE`

. This is for use with Quarto/RMarkdown.
The `print`

methods use the `print.char.matrix`

function to
print boxed tables when `options(prType=)`

has not been given or
when `prType='plain'`

. For plain tables, `print`

calls the
internal function `printsummaryM`

. When `prType='latex'`

the `latex`

method is invoked, and when `prType='html'`

html
is rendered. In Quarto/RMarkdown, proper rendering will result even
if `results='asis'`

does not appear in the chunk header. When
rendering in html at the console due to having `options(prType='html')`

the table will be rendered in a viewer.

The `plot`

method creates `plotly`

graphics if
`options(grType='plotly')`

, otherwise base graphics are used.
`plotly`

graphics provide extra information such as which
quantile is being displayed when hovering the mouse. Test statistics
are displayed by hovering over the mean.

Continuous variables are described by three quantiles (quartiles by
default) when printing, or by the following quantiles when plotting
expended box plots using the `bpplt`

function:
0.05, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, 0.625, 0.75, 0.875, 0.95. The box
plots are scaled to the 0.025 and 0.975 quantiles of each continuous
left-hand-side variable. Categorical variables are
described by counts and percentages.

The left hand side of `formula`

may contain `mChoice`

("multiple choice") variables. When `test=TRUE`

each choice is
tested separately as a binary categorical response.

The `plot`

method for `method="reverse"`

creates a temporary
function `Key`

as is done by the `xYplot`

and
`Ecdf.formula`

functions. After `plot`

runs, you can type `Key()`

to put a legend in a default location, or
e.g. `Key(locator(1))`

to draw a legend where you click the left
mouse button. This key is for categorical variables, so to have the
opportunity to put the key on the graph you will probably want to use
the command `plot(object, which="categorical")`

. A second function
`Key2`

is created if continuous variables are being plotted. It is
used the same as `Key`

. If the `which`

argument is not
specified to `plot`

, two pages of plots will be produced. If you
don't define `par(mfrow=)`

yourself,
`plot.summaryM`

will try to lay out a multi-panel
graph to best fit all the individual charts for continuous
variables.

```
summaryM(formula, groups=NULL, data=NULL, subset, na.action=na.retain,
overall=FALSE, continuous=10, na.include=FALSE,
quant=c(0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, 0.625,
0.75, 0.875, 0.95, 0.975),
nmin=100, test=FALSE,
conTest=conTestkw, catTest=catTestchisq,
ordTest=ordTestpo)
```# S3 method for summaryM
print(...)

printsummaryM(x, digits, prn = any(n != N),
what=c('proportion', '%'), pctdig = if(what == '%') 0 else 2,
npct = c('numerator', 'both', 'denominator', 'none'),
exclude1 = TRUE, vnames = c('labels', 'names'), prUnits = TRUE,
sep = '/', abbreviate.dimnames = FALSE,
prefix.width = max(nchar(lab)), min.colwidth, formatArgs=NULL, round=NULL,
prtest = c('P','stat','df','name'), prmsd = FALSE, long = FALSE,
pdig = 3, eps = 0.001, prob = c(0.25, 0.5, 0.75), prN = FALSE, ...)

# S3 method for summaryM
plot(x, vnames = c('labels', 'names'),
which = c('both', 'categorical', 'continuous'), vars=NULL,
xlim = c(0,1),
xlab = 'Proportion',
pch = c(16, 1, 2, 17, 15, 3, 4, 5, 0), exclude1 = TRUE,
main, ncols=2,
prtest = c('P', 'stat', 'df', 'name'), pdig = 3, eps = 0.001,
conType = c('bp', 'dot', 'raw'), cex.means = 0.5, cex=par('cex'),
height='auto', width=700, ...)

# S3 method for summaryM
latex(object, title =
first.word(deparse(substitute(object))),
file=paste(title, 'tex', sep='.'), append=FALSE, digits,
prn = any(n != N), what=c('proportion', '%'),
pctdig = if(what == '%') 0 else 2,
npct = c('numerator', 'both', 'denominator', 'slash', 'none'),
npct.size = if(html) mspecs$html$smaller else 'scriptsize',
Nsize = if(html) mspecs$html$smaller else 'scriptsize',
exclude1 = TRUE,
vnames=c("labels", "names"), prUnits = TRUE, middle.bold = FALSE,
outer.size = if(html) mspecs$html$smaller else "scriptsize",
caption, rowlabel = "", rowsep=html,
insert.bottom = TRUE, dcolumn = FALSE, formatArgs=NULL, round=NULL,
prtest = c('P', 'stat', 'df', 'name'), prmsd = FALSE,
msdsize = if(html) function(x) x else NULL, brmsd=FALSE,
long = FALSE, pdig = 3, eps = 0.001,
auxCol = NULL, table.env=TRUE, tabenv1=FALSE, prob=c(0.25, 0.5, 0.75),
prN=FALSE, legend.bottom=FALSE, html=FALSE,
mspecs=markupSpecs, ...)

# S3 method for summaryM
html(object, ...)

a list. `plot.summaryM`

returns the number
of pages of plots that were made if using base graphics, or

`plotly`

objects created by `plotly::subplot`

otherwise.
If both categorical and continuous variables were plotted, the
returned object is a list with two named elements `Categorical`

and `Continuous`

each containing `plotly`

objects.
Otherwise a `plotly`

object is returned.
The `latex`

method returns attributes `legend`

and

`nstrata`

.

- formula
An S formula with additive effects. There may be several variables on the right hand side separated by "+", or the numeral

`1`

, indicating that there is no grouping variable so that only margin summaries are produced. The right hand side variable, if present, must be a discrete variable producing a limited number of groups. On the left hand side there may be any number of variables, separated by "+", and these may be of mixed types. These variables are analyzed separately by the grouping variable.- groups
if there is more than one right-hand variable, specify

`groups`

as a character string containing the name of the variable used to produce columns of the table. The remaining right hand variables are combined to produce levels that cause separate tables or plots to be produced.- x
an object created by

`summaryM`

. For`conTestkw`

a numeric vector, and for`ordTestpo`

, a numeric or factor variable that can be considered ordered- data
name or number of a data frame. Default is the current frame.

- subset
a logical vector or integer vector of subscripts used to specify the subset of data to use in the analysis. The default is to use all observations in the data frame.

- na.action
function for handling missing data in the input data. The default is a function defined here called

`na.retain`

, which keeps all observations for processing, with missing variables or not.- overall
Setting

`overall=TRUE`

makes a new column with overall statistics for the whole sample. If`test=TRUE`

these marginal statistics are ignored in doing statistical tests.- continuous
specifies the threshold for when a variable is considered to be continuous (when there are at least

`continuous`

unique values).`factor`

variables are always considered to be categorical no matter how many levels they have.- na.include
Set

`na.include=TRUE`

to keep missing values of categorical variables from being excluded from the table.- nmin
For categories of the response variable in which there are less than or equal to

`nmin`

non-missing observations, the raw data are retained for later plotting in place of box plots.- test
Set to

`TRUE`

to compute test statistics using tests specified in`conTest`

and`catTest`

.- conTest
a function of two arguments (grouping variable and a continuous variable) that returns a list with components

`P`

(the computed P-value),`stat`

(the test statistic, either chi-square or F),`df`

(degrees of freedom),`testname`

(test name),`namefun`

(`"chisq", "fstat"`

),`statname`

(statistic name), an optional component`latexstat`

(LaTeX representation of`statname`

), an optional component`plotmathstat`

(for R - the`plotmath`

representation of`statname`

, as a character string), and an optional component`note`

that contains a character string note about the test (e.g.,`"test not done because n < 5"`

).`conTest`

is applied to continuous variables on the right-hand-side of the formula when`method="reverse"`

. The default uses the`spearman2`

function to run the Wilcoxon or Kruskal-Wallis test using the F distribution.- catTest
a function of a frequency table (an integer matrix) that returns a list with the same components as created by

`conTest`

. By default, the Pearson chi-square test is done, without continuity correction (the continuity correction would make the test conservative like the Fisher exact test).- ordTest
a function of a frequency table (an integer matrix) that returns a list with the same components as created by

`conTest`

. By default, the Proportional odds likelihood ratio test is done.- ...
For

`Key`

and`Key2`

these arguments are passed to`key`

,`text`

, or`mtitle`

. For`print`

methods these are optional arguments to`print.char.matrix`

. For`latex`

methods these are passed to`latex.default`

. For`html`

the arguments are passed the`latex.summaryM`

, and the arguments may not include`file`

. For`print`

the arguments are passed to`printsummaryM`

or`latex.summaryM`

depending on`options(prType=)`

.- object
an object created by

`summaryM`

- quant
vector of quantiles to use for summarizing continuous variables. These must be numbers between 0 and 1 inclusive and must include the numbers 0.5, 0.25, and 0.75 which are used for printing and for plotting quantile intervals. The outer quantiles are used for scaling the x-axes for such plots. Specify outer quantiles as

`0`

and`1`

to scale the x-axes using the whole observed data ranges instead of the default (a 0.95 quantile interval). Box-percentile plots are drawn using all but the outer quantiles.- prob
vector of quantiles to use for summarizing continuous variables. These must be numbers between 0 and 1 inclusive and have previously been included in the

`quant`

argument of`summaryM`

. The vector must be of length three. By default it contains 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75.Warning: specifying 0 and 1 as two of the quantiles will result in computing the minimum and maximum of the variable. As for many random variables the minimum will continue to become smaller as the sample size grows, and the maximum will continue to get larger. Thus the min and max are not recommended as summary statistics.

- vnames
By default, tables and plots are usually labeled with variable labels (see the

`label`

and`sas.get`

functions). To use the shorter variable names, specify`vnames="name"`

.- pch
vector of plotting characters to represent different groups, in order of group levels.

- abbreviate.dimnames
see

`print.char.matrix`

- prefix.width
see

`print.char.matrix`

- min.colwidth
minimum column width to use for boxes printed with

`print.char.matrix`

. The default is the maximum of the minimum column label length and the minimum length of entries in the data cells.- formatArgs
a list containing other arguments to pass to

`format.default`

such as`scientific`

, e.g.,`formatArgs=list(scientific=c(-5,5))`

. For`print.summary.formula.reverse`

and`format.summary.formula.reverse`

,`formatArgs`

applies only to statistics computed on continuous variables, not to percents, numerators, and denominators. The`round`

argument may be preferred.- digits
number of significant digits to print. Default is to use the current value of the

`digits`

system option.- what
specifies whether proportions or percentages are to be printed or LaTeX'd

- pctdig
number of digits to the right of the decimal place for printing percentages or proportions. The default is zero if

`what='%'`

, so percents will be rounded to the nearest percent. The default is 2 for proportions.- prn
set to

`TRUE`

to print the number of non-missing observations on the current (row) variable. The default is to print these only if any of the counts of non-missing values differs from the total number of non-missing values of the left-hand-side variable.- prN
set to

`TRUE`

to print the number of non-missing observations on rows that contain continuous variables.- npct
specifies which counts are to be printed to the right of percentages. The default is to print the frequency (numerator of the percent) in parentheses. You can specify

`"both"`

to print both numerator and denominator as a fraction,`"denominator"`

,`"slash"`

to typeset horizontally using a forward slash, or`"none"`

.- npct.size
the size for typesetting

`npct`

information which appears after percents. The default is`"scriptsize"`

.- Nsize
When a second row of column headings is added showing sample sizes,

`Nsize`

specifies the LaTeX size for these subheadings. Default is`"scriptsize"`

.- exclude1
By default,

`summaryM`

objects will be printed, plotted, or typeset by removing redundant entries from percentage tables for categorical variables. For example, if you print the percent of females, you don't need to print the percent of males. To override this, set`exclude1=FALSE`

.- prUnits
set to

`FALSE`

to suppress printing or latexing`units`

attributes of variables, when`method='reverse'`

or`'response'`

- sep
character to use to separate quantiles when printing tables

- prtest
a vector of test statistic components to print if

`test=TRUE`

was in effect when`summaryM`

was called. Defaults to printing all components. Specify`prtest=FALSE`

or`prtest="none"`

to not print any tests. This applies to`print`

,`latex`

, and`plot`

methods.- round
Specify

`round`

to round the quantiles and optional mean and standard deviation to`round`

digits after the decimal point. Set`round='auto'`

to try an automatic choice.- prmsd
set to

`TRUE`

to print mean and SD after the three quantiles, for continuous variables- msdsize
defaults to

`NULL`

to use the current font size for the mean and standard deviation if`prmsd`

is`TRUE`

. Set to a character string or function to specify an alternate LaTeX font size.- brmsd
set to

`TRUE`

to put the mean and standard deviation on a separate line, for html- long
set to

`TRUE`

to print the results for the first category on its own line, not on the same line with the variable label- pdig
number of digits to the right of the decimal place for printing P-values. Default is

`3`

. This is passed to`format.pval`

.- eps
P-values less than

`eps`

will be printed as`< eps`

. See`format.pval`

.- auxCol
an optional auxiliary column of information, right justified, to add in front of statistics typeset by

`latex.summaryM`

. This argument is a list with a single element that has a name specifying the column heading. If this name includes a newline character, the portions of the string before and after the newline form respectively the main heading and the subheading (typically set in smaller font), respectively. See the`extracolheads`

argument to`latex.default`

.`auxCol`

is filled with blanks when a variable being summarized takes up more than one row in the output. This happens with categorical variables.- table.env
set to

`FALSE`

to use`tabular`

environment with no caption- tabenv1
set to

`TRUE`

in the case of stratification when you want only the first stratum's table to be in a table environment. This is useful when using`hyperref`

.- which
Specifies whether to plot results for categorical variables, continuous variables, or both (the default).

- vars
Subscripts (indexes) of variables to plot for

`plotly`

graphics. Default is to plot all variables of each type (categorical or continuous).- conType
For drawing plots for continuous variables, extended box plots (box-percentile-type plots) are drawn by default, using all quantiles in

`quant`

except for the outermost ones which are using for scaling the overall plot based on the non-stratified marginal distribution of the current response variable. Specify`conType='dot'`

to draw dot plots showing the three quartiles instead. For extended box plots, means are drawn with a solid dot and vertical reference lines are placed at the three quartiles. Specify`conType='raw'`

to make a strip chart showing the raw data. This can only be used if the sample size for each right-hand-side group is less than or equal to`nmin`

.- cex.means
character size for means in box-percentile plots; default is .5

- cex
character size for other plotted items

- height,width
dimensions in pixels for the

`plotly`

`subplot`

object containing all the extended box plots. If`height="auto"`

,`plot.summaryM`

will set`height`

based on the number of continuous variables and`ncols`

or for dot charts it will use`Hmisc::plotlyHeightDotchart`

. At present`height`

is ignored for extended box plots due to vertical spacing problem with`plotly`

graphics.- xlim
vector of length two specifying x-axis limits. This is only used for plotting categorical variables. Limits for continuous variables are determined by the outer quantiles specified in

`quant`

.- xlab
x-axis label

- main
a main title. This applies only to the plot for categorical variables.

- ncols
number of columns for

`plotly`

graphics for extended box plots. Defaults to 2. Recommendation is for 1-2.- caption
character string containing LaTeX table captions.

- title
name of resulting LaTeX file omitting the

`.tex`

suffix. Default is the name of the`summary`

object. If`caption`

is specied,`title`

is also used for the table's symbolic reference label.- file
name of file to write LaTeX code to. Specifying

`file=""`

will cause LaTeX code to just be printed to standard output rather than be stored in a permanent file.- append
specify

`TRUE`

to add code to an existing file- rowlabel
see

`latex.default`

(under the help file`latex`

)- rowsep
if

`html`

is`TRUE`

, instructs the function to use a horizontal line to separate variables from one another. Recommended if`brmsd`

is`TRUE`

. Ignored for LaTeX.- middle.bold
set to

`TRUE`

to have LaTeX use bold face for the middle quantile- outer.size
the font size for outer quantiles

- insert.bottom
set to

`FALSE`

to suppress inclusion of definitions placed at the bottom of LaTeX tables. You can also specify a character string containing other text that overrides the automatic text. At present such text always appears in the main caption for LaTeX.- legend.bottom
set to

`TRUE`

to separate the table caption and legend. This will place table legends at the bottom of LaTeX tables.- html
set to

`TRUE`

to typeset with html- mspecs
list defining markup syntax for various languages, defaults to Hmisc

`markupSpecs`

which the user can use as a starting point for editing- dcolumn
see

`latex`

`plot.summaryM`

creates a function `Key`

and
`Key2`

in frame 0 that will draw legends, if base graphics are
being used.

Frank Harrell

Department of Biostatistics

Vanderbilt University

fh@fharrell.com

Harrell FE (2004): Statistical tables and plots using S and LaTeX. Document available from https://hbiostat.org/R/Hmisc/summary.pdf.

`mChoice`

, `label`

, `dotchart3`

,
`print.char.matrix`

, `update`

,
`formula`

,
`format.default`

, `latex`

,
`latexTranslate`

, `bpplt`

,
`tabulr`

, `bpplotM`

, `summaryP`

```
options(digits=3)
set.seed(173)
sex <- factor(sample(c("m","f"), 500, rep=TRUE))
country <- factor(sample(c('US', 'Canada'), 500, rep=TRUE))
age <- rnorm(500, 50, 5)
sbp <- rnorm(500, 120, 12)
label(sbp) <- 'Systolic BP'
units(sbp) <- 'mmHg'
treatment <- factor(sample(c("Drug","Placebo"), 500, rep=TRUE))
treatment[1]
sbp[1] <- NA
# Generate a 3-choice variable; each of 3 variables has 5 possible levels
symp <- c('Headache','Stomach Ache','Hangnail',
'Muscle Ache','Depressed')
symptom1 <- sample(symp, 500,TRUE)
symptom2 <- sample(symp, 500,TRUE)
symptom3 <- sample(symp, 500,TRUE)
Symptoms <- mChoice(symptom1, symptom2, symptom3, label='Primary Symptoms')
table(as.character(Symptoms))
# Note: In this example, some subjects have the same symptom checked
# multiple times; in practice these redundant selections would be NAs
# mChoice will ignore these redundant selections
f <- summaryM(age + sex + sbp + Symptoms ~ treatment, test=TRUE)
f
# trio of numbers represent 25th, 50th, 75th percentile
print(f, long=TRUE)
plot(f) # first specify options(grType='plotly') to use plotly
plot(f, conType='dot', prtest='P')
bpplt() # annotated example showing layout of bp plot
# Produce separate tables by country
f <- summaryM(age + sex + sbp + Symptoms ~ treatment + country,
groups='treatment', test=TRUE)
f
if (FALSE) {
getHdata(pbc)
s5 <- summaryM(bili + albumin + stage + protime + sex +
age + spiders ~ drug, data=pbc)
print(s5, npct='both')
# npct='both' : print both numerators and denominators
plot(s5, which='categorical')
Key(locator(1)) # draw legend at mouse click
par(oma=c(3,0,0,0)) # leave outer margin at bottom
plot(s5, which='continuous') # see also bpplotM
Key2() # draw legend at lower left corner of plot
# oma= above makes this default key fit the page better
options(digits=3)
w <- latex(s5, npct='both', here=TRUE, file='')
options(grType='plotly')
pbc <- upData(pbc, moveUnits = TRUE)
s <- summaryM(bili + albumin + alk.phos + copper + spiders + sex ~
drug, data=pbc, test=TRUE)
# Render html
options(prType='html')
s # invokes print.summaryM
a <- plot(s)
a$Categorical
a$Continuous
plot(s, which='con')
}
```

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