IRanges (version 2.6.1)

inter-range-methods: Inter range transformations of a Ranges, Views, RangesList, MaskCollection, or RangedData object


Range-based transformations are grouped in 2 categories:
  1. Intra range transformations (e.g. shift()) transform each range individually (and independently of the other ranges). They return an object parallel to the input object, that is, where the i-th range corresponds to the i-th range in the input. Those transformations are described in the intra-range-methods man page (see ?`intra-range-methods`).

  2. Inter range transformations (e.g. reduce()) transform all the ranges together as a set to produce a new set of ranges. They return an object that is generally NOT parallel to the input object. Those transformations are described below.


## range() ## ------- "range"(x, ..., na.rm=FALSE)
"range"(x, ..., na.rm=FALSE)
## reduce() ## -------- reduce(x, ...)
"reduce"(x, drop.empty.ranges=FALSE, min.gapwidth=1L, with.revmap=FALSE, with.inframe.attrib=FALSE)
"reduce"(x, drop.empty.ranges=FALSE, min.gapwidth=1L, with.revmap=FALSE, with.inframe.attrib=FALSE)
"reduce"(x, drop.empty.ranges=FALSE, min.gapwidth=1L, with.revmap=FALSE, with.inframe.attrib=FALSE)
## gaps() ## ------ gaps(x, start=NA, end=NA)
## disjoin(), isDisjoint(), and disjointBins() ## ------------------------------------------- disjoin(x, ...) isDisjoint(x, ...) disjointBins(x, ...)


A Ranges or RangesList object for range, disjoin, isDisjoint, and disjointBins.

A Ranges, Views, or RangesList object for reduce and gaps.

For range, additional Ranges or RangesList object to consider.
TRUE or FALSE. Should empty ranges be dropped?
Ranges separated by a gap of at least min.gapwidth positions are not merged.
TRUE or FALSE. Should the mapping from reduced to original ranges be stored in the returned object? If yes, then it is stored as metadata column "revmap" of type IntegerList.
TRUE or FALSE. For internal use.
start, end
  • If x is a Ranges or Views object: A single integer or NA. Use these arguments to specify the interval of reference i.e. which interval the returned gaps should be relative to.
  • If x is a RangesList object: Integer vectors containing the coordinate bounds for each RangesList top-level element.


If x is a Ranges object:
  • range, reduce, gaps, and disjoin return an IRanges instance.
  • isDisjoint returns TRUE or FALSE.
  • disjointBins returns an integer vector parallel to x, that is, where the i-th element corresponds to the i-th element in x.
If x is a Views object: reduce and gaps return a Views object on the same subject as x but with modified views.If x is a RangesList object:
  • range, reduce, gaps, and disjoin return a RangesList object parallel to x.
  • isDisjoint returns a logical vector parallel to x.
  • disjointBins returns an IntegerList object parallel to x.


Unless specified otherwise, when x is a RangesList object, any transformation described here is equivalent to applying the transformation to each RangesList top-level element separately.


reduce first orders the ranges in x from left to right, then merges the overlapping or adjacent ones.


range first combines x and the arguments in .... If the combined IRanges object contains at least 1 range, then range returns an IRanges instance with a single range, from the minimum start to the maximum end of the combined object. Otherwise (i.e. if the combined object contains no range), IRanges() is returned (i.e. an IRanges instance of length 0).

When passing more than 1 RangesList object to range(), they are first merged into a single RangesList object: by name if all objects have names, otherwise, if they are all of the same length, by position. Else, an exception is thrown.

If x is a RangedData object, then range returns a RangesList object resulting from calling range(ranges(x)), i.e. the bounds of the ranges in each space.


gaps returns the "normal" Ranges object representing the set of integers that remain after the set of integers represented by x has been removed from the interval specified by the start and end arguments.

If x is a Views object, then start=NA and end=NA are interpreted as start=1 and end=length(subject(x)), respectively, so, if start and end are not specified, then gaps are extracted with respect to the entire subject.


A Ranges object x is considered to be "disjoint" if its ranges are non-overlapping. isDisjoint tests whether the object is "disjoint" or not.

Note that a "normal" Ranges object is always "disjoint" but the opposite is not true. See ?isNormal for more information about normal Ranges objects.

About empty ranges. isDisjoint handles empty ranges (a.k.a. zero-width ranges) as follow: single empty range A is considered to overlap with single range B iff it's contained in B without being on the edge of B (in which case it would be ambiguous whether A is contained in or adjacent to B). More precisely, single empty range A is considered to overlap with single range B iff

    start(B) < start(A) and end(A) < end(B)
Because A is an empty range it verifies end(A) = start(A) - 1 so the above is equivalent to:
    start(B) < start(A) <= end(b)<="" pre="">
    and also equivalent to:
    start(B) <= end(a)="" <="" end(b)<="" pre="">
    Finally, it is also equivalent to:
    pcompare(A, B) == 2
See ?`Ranges-comparison` for the meaning of the codes returned by the pcompare function.


disjoin returns a disjoint object, by finding the union of the end points in x. In other words, the result consists of a range for every interval, of maximal length, over which the set of overlapping ranges in x is the same and at least of size 1.


disjointBins segregates x into a set of bins so that the ranges in each bin are disjoint. Lower-indexed bins are filled first. The method returns an integer vector indicating the bin index for each range.

See Also


Run this code
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## range()
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------

## On a Ranges object:
x <- IRanges(start=c(-2, 6, 9, -4, 1, 0, -6, 3, 10),
             width=c( 5, 0, 6,  1, 4, 3,  2, 0,  3))

## On a RangesList object (XVector package required):
range1 <- IRanges(start=c(1, 2, 3), end=c(5, 2, 8))
range2 <- IRanges(start=c(15, 45, 20, 1), end=c(15, 100, 80, 5))
range3 <- IRanges(start=c(-2, 6, 7), width=c(8, 0, 0))  # with empty ranges
collection <- IRangesList(one=range1, range2, range3)
if (require(XVector)) {

irl1 <- IRangesList(a=IRanges(c(1, 2),c(4, 3)), b=IRanges(c(4, 6),c(10, 7)))
irl2 <- IRangesList(c=IRanges(c(0, 2),c(4, 5)), a=IRanges(c(4, 5),c(6, 7)))
range(irl1, irl2)  # matched by names
names(irl2) <- NULL
range(irl1, irl2)  # now by position

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## reduce()
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------

## On a Ranges object:
y <- reduce(x, with.revmap=TRUE)
mcols(y)$revmap  # an IntegerList

reduce(x, drop.empty.ranges=TRUE)
y <- reduce(x, drop.empty.ranges=TRUE, with.revmap=TRUE)

## Use the mapping from reduced to original ranges to split the DataFrame
## of original metadata columns by reduced range:
ir0 <- IRanges(c(11:13, 2, 7:6), width=3)
mcols(ir0) <- DataFrame(id=letters[1:6], score=1:6)
ir <- reduce(ir0, with.revmap=TRUE)
revmap <- mcols(ir)$revmap
relist(mcols(ir0)[unlist(revmap), ], revmap)  # a SplitDataFrameList

## On a RangesList object. These 4 are the same:
res1 <- reduce(collection)
res2 <- IRangesList(one=reduce(range1), reduce(range2), reduce(range3))
res3 <-, lapply(collection, reduce))
res4 <- endoapply(collection, reduce)

stopifnot(identical(res2, res1))
stopifnot(identical(res3, res1))
stopifnot(identical(res4, res1))

reduce(collection, drop.empty.ranges=TRUE)

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## gaps()
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------

## On a Ranges object:
x0 <- IRanges(start=c(-2, 6, 9, -4, 1, 0, -6, 10),
              width=c( 5, 0, 6,  1, 4, 3,  2,  3))
gaps(x0, start=-6, end=20)

## On a Views object:
subject <- Rle(1:-3, 6:2)
v <- Views(subject, start=c(8, 3), end=c(14, 4))

## On a RangesList object. These 4 are the same:
res1 <- gaps(collection)
res2 <- IRangesList(one=gaps(range1), gaps(range2), gaps(range3))
res3 <-, lapply(collection, gaps))
res4 <- endoapply(collection, gaps)

stopifnot(identical(res2, res1))
stopifnot(identical(res3, res1))
stopifnot(identical(res4, res1))

## On a MaskCollection object:
mask1 <- Mask(mask.width=29, start=c(11, 25, 28), width=c(5, 2, 2))
mask2 <- Mask(mask.width=29, start=c(3, 10, 27), width=c(5, 8, 1))
mask3 <- Mask(mask.width=29, start=c(7, 12), width=c(2, 4))
mymasks <- append(append(mask1, mask2), mask3)

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## disjoin()
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------

## On a Ranges object:
ir <- IRanges(c(1, 1, 4, 10), c(6, 3, 8, 10))
disjoin(ir)  # IRanges(c(1, 4, 7, 10), c(3, 6, 8, 10))

## On a RangesList object:

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## isDisjoint()
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------

## On a Ranges object:
isDisjoint(IRanges(c(2,5,1), c(3,7,3)))  # FALSE
isDisjoint(IRanges(c(2,9,5), c(3,9,6)))  # TRUE
isDisjoint(IRanges(1, 5))  # TRUE

## Handling of empty ranges:
x <- IRanges(c(11, 16, 11, -2, 11), c(15, 29, 10, 10, 10))

## Sliding an empty range along a non-empty range:
       function(i) pcompare(IRanges(i, width=0), IRanges(12, 15)))

       function(i) isDisjoint(c(IRanges(i, width=0), IRanges(12, 15))))

## On a RangesList object:

## ---------------------------------------------------------------------
## disjointBins()
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------

## On a Ranges object:
disjointBins(IRanges(1, 5))  # 1L
disjointBins(IRanges(c(3, 1, 10), c(5, 12, 13)))  # c(2L, 1L, 2L)

## On a RangesList object:

Run the code above in your browser using DataCamp Workspace