# glmmPQL

From MASS v7.3-16
by Brian Ripley

##### Fit Generalized Linear Mixed Models via PQL

Fit a GLMM model with multivariate normal random effects, using Penalized Quasi-Likelihood.

- Keywords
- models

##### Usage

```
glmmPQL(fixed, random, family, data, correlation, weights,
control, niter = 10, verbose = TRUE, ...)
```

##### Arguments

- fixed
- a two-sided linear formula giving fixed-effects part of the model.
- random
- a formula or list of formulae describing the random effects.
- family
- a GLM family.
- data
- an optional data frame used as the first place to find
variables in the formulae,
`weights`

and if present in`...`

,`subset`

. - correlation
- an optional correlation structure.
- weights
- optional case weights as in
`glm`

. - control
- an optional argument to be passed to
`lme`

. - niter
- maximum number of iterations.
- verbose
- logical: print out record of iterations?
- ...
- Further arguments for
`lme`

.

##### Details

`glmmPQL`

works by repeated calls to `lme`

, so
package `nlme`

will be loaded at first use if necessary.

##### Value

- A object of class
`"lme"`

: see`lmeObject`

.

##### References

Schall, R. (1991) Estimation in generalized linear models with
random effects.
*Biometrika*
**78**, 719--727.

Breslow, N. E. and Clayton, D. G. (1993) Approximate inference in
generalized linear mixed models.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association*
**88**, 9--25.

Wolfinger, R. and O'Connell, M. (1993) Generalized linear mixed models: a
pseudo-likelihood approach.
*Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation*
**48**, 233--243.

Venables, W. N. and Ripley, B. D. (2002)
*Modern Applied Statistics with S.* Fourth edition. Springer.

##### See Also

##### Examples

```
library(nlme) # will be loaded automatically if omitted
summary(glmmPQL(y ~ trt + I(week > 2), random = ~ 1 | ID,
family = binomial, data = bacteria))
<testonly># an example of offset
summary(glmmPQL(y ~ trt + week, random = ~ 1 | ID,
family = binomial, data = bacteria))
summary(glmmPQL(y ~ trt + week + offset(week), random = ~ 1 | ID,
family = binomial, data = bacteria))</testonly>
```

*Documentation reproduced from package MASS, version 7.3-16, License: GPL-2 | GPL-3*

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