Resistant Estimation of Multivariate Location and Scatter
Compute a multivariate location and scale estimate with a high
breakdown point -- this can be thought of as estimating the mean and
covariance of the
good part of the data.
cov.mcd are compatibility wrappers.
cov.rob(x, cor = FALSE, quantile.used = floor((n + p + 1)/2), method = c("mve", "mcd", "classical"), nsamp = "best", seed)
- a matrix or data frame.
- should the returned result include a correlation matrix?
- the minimum number of the data points regarded as
- the method to be used -- minimum volume ellipsoid, minimum
covariance determinant or classical product-moment. Using
- the number of samples or
"sample"the number chosen is
min(5*p, 3000), taken from Rousseeuw and Hubert (1997). If
- the seed to be used for random sampling: see
RNGkind. The current value of
.Random.seedwill be preserved if it is set.
- arguments to
"mve", an approximate search is made of a subset of
quantile.used with an enclosing ellipsoid of smallest volume; in
"mcd" it is the volume of the Gaussian confidence
ellipsoid, equivalently the determinant of the classical covariance
matrix, that is minimized. The mean of the subset provides a first
estimate of the location, and the rescaled covariance matrix a first
estimate of scatter. The Mahalanobis distances of all the points from
the location estimate for this covariance matrix are calculated, and
those points within the 97.5% point under Gaussian assumptions are
declared to be
good. The final estimates are the mean and rescaled
covariance of the
The rescaling is by the appropriate percentile under Gaussian data; in addition the first covariance matrix has an ad hoc finite-sample correction given by Marazzi.
"mve" the search is made over ellipsoids determined
by the covariance matrix of
p of the data points. For method
"mcd" an additional improvement step suggested by Rousseeuw and
van Driessen (1999) is used, in which once a subset of size
quantile.used is selected, an ellipsoid based on its covariance
is tested (as this will have no larger a determinant, and may be smaller).
- A list with components
center the final estimate of location. cov the final estimate of scatter. cor (only is
cor = TRUE) the estimate of the correlation matrix.
sing message giving number of singular samples out of total crit the value of the criterion on log scale. For MCD this is the determinant, and for MVE it is proportional to the volume. best the subset used. For MVE the best sample, for MCD the best set of size
n.obs total number of observations.
P. J. Rousseeuw and A. M. Leroy (1987) Robust Regression and Outlier Detection. Wiley.
A. Marazzi (1993) Algorithms, Routines and S Functions for Robust Statistics. Wadsworth and Brooks/Cole.
P. J. Rousseeuw and B. C. van Zomeren (1990) Unmasking multivariate outliers and leverage points, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 85, 633--639.
P. J. Rousseeuw and K. van Driessen (1999) A fast algorithm for the minimum covariance determinant estimator. Technometrics 41, 212--223.
P. Rousseeuw and M. Hubert (1997) Recent developments in PROGRESS. In L1-Statistical Procedures and Related Topics ed Y. Dodge, IMS Lecture Notes volume 31, pp. 201--214.
set.seed(123) cov.rob(stackloss) cov.rob(stack.x, method = "mcd", nsamp = "exact")