MarginalMediation v0.5.1


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Marginal Mediation

Provides the ability to perform "Marginal Mediation"--mediation wherein the indirect and direct effects are in terms of the average marginal effects (Bartus, 2005, <>). The style of the average marginal effects stems from Thomas Leeper's work on the "margins" package. This framework allows the use of categorical mediators and outcomes with little change in interpretation from the continuous mediators/outcomes. See <doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.18465.92001> for more details on the method (peer reviewed articles forthcoming).


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MarginalMediation: 0.5.1

The MarginalMediation package provides the ability to perform marginal mediation analysis. It provides a useful framework from which to interpret the coefficients in a mediation analysis, especially when the mediator(s) and/or outcome is binary or a count (other types of outcomes will be added).

You can install it via:




The main function is mma():

    ind_effects = c("apath-bpath"))

where ... consists of 2 or more model objects. The first is the b and c' path model, while the others are the a path models.

The ind_effects is a vector of requested mediated paths. These estimates are in terms of the average marginal effects using the a x b method of estimating indirect paths. Any number of these can be included, although it is limited to the number of variables available in the models.

A Quick Example

Below is an example, where the theoretical backing of such a model is not very stable, but it is useful to show how to use the function and the output.

## Data for the example
#> furniture 1.7.6: learn more at

## The MarginalMediation package
#> MarginalMediation 0.5.1: This is beta software.
#> Please report any bugs (
pathbc = glm(marijuana ~ home_meals + gender + age + asthma, 
             data = nhanes_2010, 
             family = "binomial")
patha = glm(home_meals ~ gender + age + asthma,
            data = nhanes_2010, 
            family = "gaussian")
mma(pathbc, patha,
    ind_effects = c("genderFemale-home_meals",
    boot = 500)
#> calculating a paths... b and c paths... Done.

#> ┌───────────────────────────────┐
#> │  Marginal Mediation Analysis  │
#> └───────────────────────────────┘
#> A marginal mediation model with:
#>    1 mediators
#>    3 indirect effects
#>    3 direct effects
#>    500 bootstrapped samples
#>    95% confidence interval
#>    n = 1417 
#> Formulas:
#>    ◌ marijuana ~ home_meals + gender + age + asthma
#>    ◌ home_meals ~ gender + age + asthma 
#> Unstandardized Effects
#> ⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺⎺
#> ── Indirect Effects ──
#>                           A-path   B-path Indirect    Lower   Upper
#> genderFemale-home_meals -1.34831 -0.00973  0.01312  0.00429 0.02562
#> age-home_meals          -0.05689 -0.00973  0.00055  0.00003 0.00139
#> asthmaNo-home_meals     -0.00428 -0.00973  0.00004 -0.00639 0.00672
#> ── Direct Effects ──
#>                Direct    Lower   Upper
#> genderFemale  0.10430  0.04813 0.15967
#> age           0.00066 -0.00603 0.00848
#> asthmaNo     -0.00172 -0.06947 0.07061
#> -----

The print method provides:

  1. the a path,
  2. the b path,
  3. the indirect effect with the confidence interval, and
  4. the direct effect with the confidence interval.

These are all average marginal effects, and are, therefore, in terms of the corresponding endogenous variable’s units.


This is currently beta but I am excited to provide an initial working release. Let me know if you find any bugs or want to discuss the method (

Final Notes

More will be done to MarginalMediation as it is under development, including:

  1. More bootstrapping options (e.g., Bias-Corrected Bootstrap)
  2. More distributional options as currently only gaussian, binomial, and Poisson are available (e.g., zero-inflated distributions, multinomial distributions)


Functions in MarginalMediation

Name Description
amed Average Marginal Effects
mma_std_ind_effects Standardized Indirect Effects Extraction for MMA
mma_std_dir_effects Standardized Direct Effects Extraction for MMA
perc_med Percent Mediation
mma Marginal Mediation
mma_dir_effects Direct Effects Extraction for MMA
mma_formulas Formula Extraction for MMA
mma_ind_effects Indirect Effects Extraction for MMA
frames Average Marginal Effects
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VignetteBuilder knitr
Encoding UTF-8
License GPL-2
LazyData true
RoxygenNote 6.0.1
NeedsCompilation no
Packaged 2018-04-09 23:14:27 UTC; tyson
Repository CRAN
Date/Publication 2018-04-10 13:08:02 UTC

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