Matrix (version 1.5-4.1)

band: Extract bands of a matrix


Return the matrix obtained by setting to zero elements below a diagonal (triu), above a diagonal (tril), or outside of a general band (band).


band(x, k1, k2, ...)
triu(x, k = 0, ...)
tril(x, k = 0, ...)


An object of a suitable matrix class, inheriting from

triangularMatrix where appropriate. It inherits from sparseMatrix if and only if x does.



a matrix-like object


integers specifying the diagonals that are not set to zero. These are interpreted relative to the main diagonal, which is k=0. Positive and negative values of k indicate diagonals above and below the main diagonal, respectively.


optional arguments passed methods (currently unused by package Matrix)


x = "CsparseMatrix"

method for compressed, sparse, column-oriented matrices.

x = "RsparseMatrix"

method for compressed, sparse, row-oriented matrices.

x = "TsparseMatrix"

method for sparse matrices in triplet format.

x = "diagonalMatrix"

method for diagonal matrices.

x = "denseMatrix"

method for dense matrices in packed or unpacked format.

x = "matrix"

method for traditional matrices of implicit class matrix.


triu(x, k) is equivalent to band(x, k, dim(x)[2]). Similarly, tril(x, k) is equivalent to band(x, -dim(x)[1], k).

See Also

bandSparse for the construction of a banded sparse matrix directly from its non-zero diagonals.


Run this code
## A random sparse matrix :
m <- matrix(0, 5, 5)
m[sample(length(m), size = 14)] <- rep(1:9, length=14)
(mm <- as(m, "CsparseMatrix"))

tril(mm)        # lower triangle
tril(mm, -1)    # strict lower triangle
triu(mm,  1)    # strict upper triangle
band(mm, -1, 2) # general band
(m5 <- Matrix(rnorm(25), ncol = 5))
tril(m5)        # lower triangle
tril(m5, -1)    # strict lower triangle
triu(m5, 1)     # strict upper triangle
band(m5, -1, 2) # general band
(m65 <- Matrix(rnorm(30), ncol = 5))  # not square
triu(m65)       # result not "dtrMatrix" unless square
(sm5 <- crossprod(m65)) # symmetric
   band(sm5, -1, 1)# "dsyMatrix": symmetric band preserves symmetry property
as(band(sm5, -1, 1), "sparseMatrix")# often preferable
(sm <- round(crossprod(triu(mm/2)))) # sparse symmetric ("dsC*")
band(sm, -1,1) # remains "dsC", *however*
band(sm, -2,1) # -> "dgC"

 ## this uses special methods
(x.x <- crossprod(mm))
xx <- tril(x.x) + triu(x.x, 1) ## the same as x.x (but stored differently):
txx <- t(as(xx, "symmetricMatrix"))
stopifnot(identical(triu(x.x), t(tril(x.x))),
	  identical(class(x.x), class(txx)),
	  identical(as(x.x, "generalMatrix"), as(txx, "generalMatrix")))

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