```
library(sp)
N <- 10L # number of agents
x1 <- stats::runif(N, -50, 50) # previous X location
y1 <- stats::runif(N, -50, 50) # previous Y location
x0 <- stats::rnorm(N, x1, 5) # current X location
y0 <- stats::rnorm(N, y1, 5) # current Y location
# using SpatialPoints
prev <- SpatialPoints(cbind(x = x1, y = y1))
curr <- SpatialPoints(cbind(x = x0, y = y0))
heading(prev, curr)
# using matrix
prev <- matrix(c(x1, y1), ncol = 2, dimnames = list(NULL, c("x","y")))
curr <- matrix(c(x0, y0), ncol = 2, dimnames = list(NULL, c("x","y")))
heading(prev, curr)
#using both
prev <- SpatialPoints(cbind(x = x1, y = y1))
curr <- matrix(c(x0, y0), ncol = 2, dimnames = list(NULL, c("x","y")))
heading(prev, curr)
prev <- matrix(c(x1, y1), ncol = 2, dimnames = list(NULL, c("x","y")))
curr <- SpatialPoints(cbind(x = x0, y = y0))
heading(prev, curr)
```

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