# MACD

##### MACD Oscillator

The MACD was developed by Gerald Appel and is probably the most popular price oscillator. The MACD function documented in this page compares a fast moving average (MA) of a series with a slow MA of the same series. It can be used as a generic oscillator for any univariate series, not only price.

- Keywords
- ts

##### Usage

`MACD(x, nFast = 12, nSlow = 26, nSig = 9, maType, percent = TRUE, ...)`

##### Arguments

- x
Object that is coercible to xts or matrix; usually price, but can be volume, etc.

- nFast
Number of periods for fast moving average.

- nSlow
Number of periods for slow moving average.

- nSig
Number of periods for signal moving average.

- maType
Either:

A function or a string naming the function to be called.

A

*list*with the first component like (1) above, and additional parameters specified as*named*components. See Examples.

- percent
logical; if

`TRUE`

, the percentage difference between the fast and slow moving averages is returned, otherwise the difference between the respective averages is returned.- …
Other arguments to be passed to the

`maType`

function in case (1) above.

##### Details

The MACD function either subtracts the fast MA from the slow MA, or finds the rate of change between the fast MA and the slow MA.

##### Value

A object of the same class as `x`

or a matrix (if `try.xts`

fails) containing the columns:

- macd
The price (volume, etc.) oscillator.

- signal
The oscillator signal line (a moving average of the oscillator).

##### Note

The MACD is a special case of the general oscillator applied to price. The MACD can be used as a general oscillator applied to any series. Time periods for the MACD are often given as 26 and 12, but the original formula used exponential constants of 0.075 and 0.15, which are closer to 25.6667 and 12.3333 periods.

##### References

The following site(s) were used to code/document this indicator: Moving Average Convergence/Divergence (MACD): http://www.fmlabs.com/reference/MACD.htm https://www.metastock.com/Customer/Resources/TAAZ/?p=66 https://www.linnsoft.com/techind/macd http://www.stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:moving_average_convergence_divergence_macd Price Oscillator: http://www.fmlabs.com/reference/PriceOscillator.htm http://www.fmlabs.com/reference/PriceOscillatorPct.htm https://www.metastock.com/Customer/Resources/TAAZ/?p=94 http://www.stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:price_oscillators_ppo Volume Oscillator: http://www.fmlabs.com/reference/PVO.htm https://www.metastock.com/Customer/Resources/TAAZ/?p=122

##### See Also

See `EMA`

, `SMA`

, etc. for moving average
options; and note Warning section.

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
data(ttrc)
macd <- MACD( ttrc[,"Close"], 12, 26, 9, maType="EMA" )
macd2 <- MACD( ttrc[,"Close"], 12, 26, 9,
maType=list(list(SMA), list(EMA, wilder=TRUE), list(SMA)) )
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package TTR, version 0.23-6, License: GPL (>= 2)*