```
# NOT RUN {
# Fit the proportional odds model, p.179, in McCullagh and Nelder (1989)
pneumo <- transform(pneumo, let = log(exposure.time))
(fit <- vglm(cbind(normal, mild, severe) ~ let,
cumulative(parallel = TRUE, reverse = TRUE), data = pneumo))
depvar(fit) # Sample proportions (good technique)
fit@y # Sample proportions (bad technique)
weights(fit, type = "prior") # Number of observations
coef(fit, matrix = TRUE)
constraints(fit) # Constraint matrices
apply(fitted(fit), 1, which.max) # Classification
apply(predict(fit, newdata = pneumo, type = "response"),
1, which.max) # Classification
R2latvar(fit)
# Check that the model is linear in let ----------------------
fit2 <- vgam(cbind(normal, mild, severe) ~ s(let, df = 2),
cumulative(reverse = TRUE), data = pneumo)
# }
# NOT RUN {
plot(fit2, se = TRUE, overlay = TRUE, lcol = 1:2, scol = 1:2)
# }
# NOT RUN {
# Check the proportional odds assumption with a LRT ----------
(fit3 <- vglm(cbind(normal, mild, severe) ~ let,
cumulative(parallel = FALSE, reverse = TRUE), data = pneumo))
pchisq(2 * (logLik(fit3) - logLik(fit)),
df = length(coef(fit3)) - length(coef(fit)), lower.tail = FALSE)
lrtest(fit3, fit) # More elegant
# A factor() version of fit ----------------------------------
# This is in long format (cf. wide format above)
Nobs <- round(depvar(fit) * c(weights(fit, type = "prior")))
sumNobs <- colSums(Nobs) # apply(Nobs, 2, sum)
pneumo.long <-
data.frame(symptoms = ordered(rep(rep(colnames(Nobs), nrow(Nobs)),
times = c(t(Nobs))),
levels = colnames(Nobs)),
let = rep(rep(with(pneumo, let), each = ncol(Nobs)),
times = c(t(Nobs))))
with(pneumo.long, table(let, symptoms)) # Should be same as pneumo
(fit.long1 <- vglm(symptoms ~ let, data = pneumo.long, trace = TRUE,
cumulative(parallel = TRUE, reverse = TRUE)))
coef(fit.long1, matrix = TRUE) # Should be as coef(fit, matrix = TRUE)
# Could try using mustart if fit.long1 failed to converge.
mymustart <- matrix(sumNobs / sum(sumNobs),
nrow(pneumo.long), ncol(Nobs), byrow = TRUE)
fit.long2 <- vglm(symptoms ~ let, mustart = mymustart,
cumulative(parallel = TRUE, reverse = TRUE),
data = pneumo.long, trace = TRUE)
coef(fit.long2, matrix = TRUE) # Should be as coef(fit, matrix = TRUE)
# }
```

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