# dist.topo

##### Topological Distances Between Two Trees

This function computes the topological distance between two phylogenetic trees using different methods.

- Keywords
- manip

##### Usage

`dist.topo(x, y, method = "PH85")`

##### Details

Two methods are available: the one by Penny and Hendy (1985), and the branch length score by Kuhner and Felsenstein (1994). The trees are always considered as unrooted.

The topological distance is defined as twice the number of internal branches defining different bipartitions of the tips (Penny and Hendy 1985). Rzhetsky and Nei (1992) proposed a modification of the original formula to take multifurcations into account.

The branch length score may be seen as similar to the previous distance but taking branch lengths into account. Kuhner and Felsenstein (1994) proposed to calculate the square root of the sum of the squared differences of the (internal) branch lengths defining similar bipartitions (or splits) in both trees.

##### Value

a single numeric value.

##### Note

The geodesic distance of Billera et al. (2001) has been disabled: see
the package

##### References

Billera, L. J., Holmes, S. P. and Vogtmann, K. (2001) Geometry of the
space of phylogenetic trees. *Advances in Applied Mathematics*,
**27**, 733--767.

Kuhner, M. K. and Felsenstein, J. (1994) Simulation comparison of
phylogeny algorithms under equal and unequal evolutionary rates.
*Molecular Biology and Evolution*, **11**, 459--468.

Nei, M. and Kumar, S. (2000) *Molecular evolution and
phylogenetics*. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Penny, D. and Hendy, M. D. (1985) The use of tree comparison
metrics. *Systemetic Zoology*, **34**, 75--82.

Rzhetsky, A. and Nei, M. (1992) A simple method for estimating and
testing minimum-evolution trees. *Molecular Biology and
Evolution*, **9**, 945--967.

##### See Also

`read.tree`

to read tree files in Newick format,
`cophenetic.phylo`

, `prop.part`

##### Examples

```
ta <- rtree(30)
tb <- rtree(30)
dist.topo(ta, ta) # = 0
dist.topo(ta, tb) # This is unlikely to be 0 !
```

*Documentation reproduced from package ape, version 3.0-2, License: GPL (>= 2)*

### Community examples

**shivanis270@gmail.com**at Dec 3, 2019 ape v3.0-9

dist.topo(tree1, tree2, method = "PH85")