Concatenate vectors after converting to character.
paste (..., sep = " ", collapse = NULL) paste0(..., collapse = NULL)
paste converts its arguments (via
as.character) to character strings, and concatenates
them (separating them by the string given by
sep). If the
arguments are vectors, they are concatenated term-by-term to give a
character vector result. Vector arguments are recycled as needed,
with zero-length arguments being recycled to
character missing value, to
"NA" which may seem
undesirable, e.g., when pasting two character vectors, or very
desirable, e.g. in
paste("the value of p is ", p).
paste0(..., collapse) is equivalent to
paste(..., sep = "", collapse), slightly more efficiently.
If a value is specified for
collapse, the values in the result
are then concatenated into a single string, with the elements being
separated by the value of
A character vector of the concatenated values. This will be of length
zero if all the objects are, unless
collapseis non-NULL in which case it is a single empty string.If any input into an element of the result is in UTF-8 (and none are declared with encoding
"bytes"), that element will be in UTF-8, otherwise in the current encoding in which case the encoding of the element is declared if the current locale is either Latin-1 or UTF-8, at least one of the corresponding inputs (including separators) had a declared encoding and all inputs were either ASCII or declared.If an input into an element is declared with encoding
"bytes", no translation will be done of any of the elements and the resulting element will have encoding
collapseis non-NULL, this applies also to the second, collapsing, phase, but some translation may have been done in pasting object together in the first phase.
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
plotmath for the use of
paste in plot annotation.
paste(1:12) # same as as.character(1:12) paste("A", 1:6, sep = "") stopifnot(identical(paste ("A", 1:6, sep = ""), paste0("A", 1:6))) paste("Today is", date())
See [`str_c()`](https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/stringr/topics/str_c) for examples of how it differs from `paste0()`, particularly w.r.t. handling missing values.