sort
Sorting or Ordering Vectors
Sort (or order) a vector or factor (partially) into
ascending or descending order. For ordering along more than one
variable, e.g., for sorting data frames, see order
.
Usage
sort(x, decreasing = FALSE, ...)
"sort"(x, decreasing = FALSE, na.last = NA, ...)
sort.int(x, partial = NULL, na.last = NA, decreasing = FALSE, method = c("shell", "quick"), index.return = FALSE)
Arguments
 x
 for
sort
an R object with a class or a numeric, complex, character or logical vector. Forsort.int
, a numeric, complex, character or logical vector, or a factor.  decreasing
 logical. Should the sort be increasing or decreasing? Not available for partial sorting.
 ...
 arguments to be passed to or from methods or (for the
default methods and objects without a class) to
sort.int
.  na.last
 for controlling the treatment of
NA
s. IfTRUE
, missing values in the data are put last; ifFALSE
, they are put first; ifNA
, they are removed.  partial
NULL
or a vector of indices for partial sorting. method
 character string specifying the algorithm used. Not available for partial sorting. Can be abbreviated.
 index.return
 logical indicating if the ordering index vector should
be returned as well; this is only available for a few cases, the default
na.last = NA
and full sorting of nonfactors.
Details
sort
is a generic function for which methods can be written,
and sort.int
is the internal method which is compatible
with S if only the first three arguments are used.
The default sort
method makes use of order
for
classed objects, which in turn makes use of the generic function
xtfrm
(and can be slow unless a xtfrm
method has
been defined or is.numeric(x)
is true).
Complex values are sorted first by the real part, then the imaginary part.
The sort order for character vectors will depend on the collating
sequence of the locale in use: see Comparison
.
The sort order for factors is the order of their levels (which is
particularly appropriate for ordered factors).
If partial
is not NULL
, it is taken to contain indices
of elements of the result which are to be placed in their correct
positions in the sorted array by partial sorting. For each of the
result values in a specified position, any values smaller than that
one are guaranteed to have a smaller index in the sorted array and any
values which are greater are guaranteed to have a bigger index in the
sorted array. (This is included for efficiency, and many of the
options are not available for partial sorting. It is only
substantially more efficient if partial
has a handful of
elements, and a full sort is done (a Quicksort if possible) if there
are more than 10.) Names are discarded for partial sorting.
Method "shell"
uses Shellsort (an $O(n^{4/3})$ variant from
Sedgewick (1986)). If x
has names a stable modification is
used, so ties are not reordered. (This only matters if names are
present.)
Method "quick"
uses Singleton (1969)'s implementation of
Hoare's Quicksort method and is only available when x
is
numeric (double or integer) and partial
is NULL
. (For
other types of x
Shellsort is used, silently.) It is normally
somewhat faster than Shellsort (perhaps 50% faster on vectors of
length a million and twice as fast at a billion) but has poor
performance in the rare worst case. (Peto's modification using a
pseudorandom midpoint is used to make the worst case rarer.) This is
not a stable sort, and ties may be reordered.
Factors with less than 100,000 levels are sorted by radix sorting when
method
is not supplied: see sort.list
.
Value

For
sort
, the result depends on the S3 method which is
dispatched. If x
does not have a class sort.int
is used
and it description applies. For classed objects which do not have a
specific method the default method will be used and is equivalent to
x[order(x, ...)]
: this depends on the class having a suitable
method for [
(and also that order
will work,
which is not the case for a class based on a list).For sort.int
the value is the sorted vector unless
index.return
is true, when the result is a list with components
named x
and ix
containing the sorted numbers and the
ordering index vector. In the latter case, if method ==
"quick"
ties may be reversed in the ordering (unlike
sort.list
) as quicksort is not stable. NB: the index vector
refers to element numbers after removal of NA
s: see
order
if you want the original element numbers.All attributes are removed from the return value (see Becker et
al, 1988, p.146) except names, which are sorted. (If
partial
is specified even the names are removed.) Note that
this means that the returned value has no class, except for factors
and ordered factors (which are treated specially and whose result is
transformed back to the original class).
References
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
Knuth, D. E. (1998) The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 3: Sorting and Searching. 2nd ed. AddisonWesley. Sedgewick, R. (1986) A new upper bound for Shell sort. J. Algorithms 7, 159173.
Singleton, R. C. (1969) An efficient algorithm for sorting with minimal storage: Algorithm 347. Communications of the ACM 12, 185187.
See Also
‘Comparison’ for how character strings are collated.
order
for sorting on or reordering multiple variables.
Examples
library(base)
require(stats)
x < swiss$Education[1:25]
x; sort(x); sort(x, partial = c(10, 15))
## illustrate 'stable' sorting (of ties):
sort(c(10:3, 2:12), method = "sh", index.return = TRUE) # is stable
## $x : 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 12
## $ix: 9 8 10 7 11 6 12 5 13 4 14 3 15 2 16 1 17 18 19
sort(c(10:3, 2:12), method = "qu", index.return = TRUE) # is not
## $x : 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 12
## $ix: 9 10 8 7 11 6 12 5 13 4 14 3 15 16 2 17 1 18 19
x < c(1:3, 3:5, 10)
is.unsorted(x) # FALSE: is sorted
is.unsorted(x, strictly = TRUE) # TRUE : is not (and cannot be)
# sorted strictly
## Not run:
# ## Small speed comparison simulation:
# N < 2000
# Sim < 20
# rep < 1000 # << adjust to your CPU
# c1 < c2 < numeric(Sim)
# for(is in seq_len(Sim)){
# x < rnorm(N)
# c1[is] < system.time(for(i in 1:rep) sort(x, method = "shell"))[1]
# c2[is] < system.time(for(i in 1:rep) sort(x, method = "quick"))[1]
# stopifnot(sort(x, method = "s") == sort(x, method = "q"))
# }
# rbind(ShellSort = c1, QuickSort = c2)
# cat("Speedup factor of quick sort():\n")
# summary({qq < c1 / c2; qq[is.finite(qq)]})
#
# ## A larger test
# x < rnorm(1e7)
# system.time(x1 < sort(x, method = "shell"))
# system.time(x2 < sort(x, method = "quick"))
# stopifnot(identical(x1, x2))
# ## End(Not run)