all.equal
Test if Two Objects are (Nearly) Equal
all.equal(x, y)
is a utility to compare R objects x
and y
testing ‘near equality’. If they are different,
comparison is still made to some extent, and a report of the
differences is returned. Do not use all.equal
directly in
if
expressionseither use isTRUE(all.equal(....))
or
identical
if appropriate.
 Keywords
 utilities, arith, programming, logic
Usage
all.equal(target, current, ...)
"all.equal"(target, current, tolerance = sqrt(.Machine$double.eps), scale = NULL, ..., check.attributes = TRUE)
"all.equal"(target, current, ..., check.attributes = TRUE, use.names = TRUE)
"all.equal"(target, current, all.names=TRUE, ...)
"all.equal"(target, current, ..., tolerance = 1e3, scale)
attr.all.equal(target, current, ..., check.attributes = TRUE, check.names = TRUE)
Arguments
 target
 R object.
 current
 other R object, to be compared with
target
.  ...
 Further arguments for different methods, notably the following two, for numerical comparison:
 tolerance
 numeric $\ge$ 0. Differences smaller than
tolerance
are not reported. The default value is close to1.5e8
.  scale
 numeric scalar > 0 (or
NULL
). See ‘Details’.  check.attributes
 logical indicating if the
attributes
oftarget
andcurrent
(other than the names) should be compared.  use.names
 logical indicating if
list
comparison should report differing components by name (if matching) instead of integer index. Note that this comes after...
and so must be specified by its full name.  all.names
 logical passed to
ls
indicating if “hidden” objects should also be considered in the environments.  check.names
 logical indicating if the
names(.)
oftarget
andcurrent
should be compared.
Details
all.equal
is a generic function, dispatching methods on the
target
argument. To see the available methods, use
methods("all.equal")
, but note that the default method
also does some dispatching, e.g.\ifelse{latex}{\out{~}}{ } using the raw method for logical
targets.
Remember that arguments which follow ...
must be specified by
(unabbreviated) name: some of them were before ...
prior to
R 3.1.0. It is inadvisable to pass unnamed arguments in ...
as these will match different arguments in different methods.
Numerical comparisons for scale = NULL
(the default) are
typically on relative difference scale unless the target values
are close to zero: First, the mean absolute difference of the two
numerical vectors is computed. If this is smaller than
tolerance
or not finite, absolute differences are used,
otherwise relative differences scaled by the mean absolute
target
value.
(Note that these comparisons are computed only for those vector elements
where target
is not NA
and differs from current
.)
If scale
is positive, absolute comparisons are made after
scaling (dividing) by scale
.
For complex target
, the modulus (Mod
) of the
difference is used: all.equal.numeric
is called so arguments
tolerance
and scale
are available.
The list
method compares components of
target
and current
recursively, passing all other
arguments, as long as both are “listlike”, i.e., fulfill
either is.vector
or is.list
.
The environment
method works via the list
method,
and is also used for reference classes (unless a specific
all.equal
method is defined).
The methods for the datetime classes by default allow a tolerance of
tolerance = 0.001
seconds, and ignore scale
.
attr.all.equal
is used for comparing
attributes
, returning NULL
or a
character
vector.
Value

Either
TRUE
(NULL
for attr.all.equal
) or a vector
of mode
"character"
describing the differences
between target
and current
.
References
Chambers, J. M. (1998)
Programming with Data. A Guide to the S Language.
Springer (for =
).
See Also
Examples
library(base)
all.equal(pi, 355/113)
# not precise enough (default tol) > relative error
d45 < pi*(1/4 + 1:10)
stopifnot(
all.equal(tan(d45), rep(1, 10))) # TRUE, but
all (tan(d45) == rep(1, 10)) # FALSE, since not exactly
all.equal(tan(d45), rep(1, 10), tolerance = 0) # to see difference
## advanced: equality of environments
ae < all.equal(as.environment("package:stats"),
asNamespace("stats"))
stopifnot(is.character(ae), length(ae) > 10,
## were incorrectly "considered equal" in R <= 3.1.1
all.equal(asNamespace("stats"), asNamespace("stats")))