base (version 3.4.0)

# crossprod: Matrix Crossproduct

## Description

Given matrices `x` and `y` as arguments, return a matrix cross-product. This is formally equivalent to (but usually slightly faster than) the call `t(x) %*% y` (`crossprod`) or `x %*% t(y)` (`tcrossprod`).

## Usage

`crossprod(x, y = NULL)tcrossprod(x, y = NULL)`

## Arguments

x, y
numeric or complex matrices (or vectors): `y = NULL` is taken to be the same matrix as `x`. Vectors are promoted to single-column or single-row matrices, depending on the context.

## Value

A double or complex matrix, with appropriate `dimnames` taken from `x` and `y`.

## References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

`%*%` and outer product `%o%`.

## Examples

Run this code
``````(z <- crossprod(1:4))    # = sum(1 + 2^2 + 3^2 + 4^2)
drop(z)                  # scalar
x <- 1:4; names(x) <- letters[1:4]; x
tcrossprod(as.matrix(x)) # is
identical(tcrossprod(as.matrix(x)),
crossprod(t(x)))
tcrossprod(x)            # no dimnames

m <- matrix(1:6, 2,3) ; v <- 1:3; v2 <- 2:1
stopifnot(identical(tcrossprod(v, m), v %*% t(m)),
identical(tcrossprod(v, m), crossprod(v, t(m))),
identical(crossprod(m, v2), t(m) %*% v2))
``````

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