```
## be careful with the format: most things in R are floats
## only integer-valued reals get coerced to integer.
sprintf("%s is %f feet tall\n", "Sven", 7.1) # OK
try(sprintf("%s is %i feet tall\n", "Sven", 7.1)) # not OK
sprintf("%s is %i feet tall\n", "Sven", 7 ) # OK
## use a literal % :
sprintf("%.0f%% said yes (out of a sample of size %.0f)", 66.666, 3)
## various formats of pi :
sprintf("%f", pi)
sprintf("%.3f", pi)
sprintf("%1.0f", pi)
sprintf("%5.1f", pi)
sprintf("%05.1f", pi)
sprintf("%+f", pi)
sprintf("% f", pi)
sprintf("%-10f", pi) # left justified
sprintf("%e", pi)
sprintf("%E", pi)
sprintf("%g", pi)
sprintf("%g", 1e6 * pi) # -> exponential
sprintf("%.9g", 1e6 * pi) # -> "fixed"
sprintf("%G", 1e-6 * pi)
## no truncation:
sprintf("%1.f", 101)
## re-use one argument three times, show difference between %x and %X
xx <- sprintf("%1$d %1$x %1$X", 0:15)
xx <- matrix(xx, dimnames = list(rep("", 16), "%d%x%X"))
noquote(format(xx, justify = "right"))
## More sophisticated:
sprintf("min 10-char string '%10s'",
c("a", "ABC", "and an even longer one"))
## Platform-dependent bad example from qdapTools 1.0.0:
## may pad with spaces or zeroes.
sprintf("%09s", month.name)
n <- 1:18
sprintf(paste0("e with %2d digits = %.", n, "g"), n, exp(1))
## Using arguments out of order
sprintf("second %2$1.0f, first %1$5.2f, third %3$1.0f", pi, 2, 3)
## Using asterisk for width or precision
sprintf("precision %.*f, width '%*.3f'", 3, pi, 8, pi)
## Asterisk and argument re-use, 'e' example reiterated:
sprintf("e with %1$2d digits = %2$.*1$g", n, exp(1))
## re-cycle arguments
sprintf("%s %d", "test", 1:3)
## binary output showing rounding/representation errors
x <- seq(0, 1.0, 0.1); y <- c(0,.1,.2,.3,.4,.5,.6,.7,.8,.9,1)
cbind(x, sprintf("%a", x), sprintf("%a", y))
```

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