# .Machine

0th

Percentile

##### Numerical Characteristics of the Machine

.Machine is a variable holding information on the numerical characteristics of the machine R is running on, such as the largest double or integer and the machine's precision.

Keywords
programming, math, sysdata
##### Usage
.Machine
##### Details

The algorithm is based on Cody's (1988) subroutine MACHAR. As all current implementations of R use 32-bit integers and use IEC 60559 floating-point (double precision) arithmetic, all but three of the last four values are the same for almost all R builds.

Note that on most platforms smaller positive values than .Machine\$double.xmin can occur. On a typical R platform the smallest positive double is about 5e-324.

##### Value

A list with components

double.eps

the smallest positive floating-point number x such that 1 + x != 1. It equals double.base ^ ulp.digits if either double.base is 2 or double.rounding is 0; otherwise, it is (double.base ^ double.ulp.digits) / 2. Normally 2.220446e-16.

double.neg.eps

a small positive floating-point number x such that 1 - x != 1. It equals double.base ^ double.neg.ulp.digits if double.base is 2 or double.rounding is 0; otherwise, it is (double.base ^ double.neg.ulp.digits) / 2. Normally 1.110223e-16. As double.neg.ulp.digits is bounded below by -(double.digits + 3), double.neg.eps may not be the smallest number that can alter 1 by subtraction.

double.xmin

the smallest non-zero normalized floating-point number, a power of the radix, i.e., double.base ^ double.min.exp. Normally 2.225074e-308.

double.xmax

the largest normalized floating-point number. Typically, it is equal to (1 - double.neg.eps) * double.base ^ double.max.exp, but on some machines it is only the second or third largest such number, being too small by 1 or 2 units in the last digit of the significand. Normally 1.797693e+308. Note that larger unnormalized numbers can occur.

double.base

the radix for the floating-point representation: normally 2.

double.digits

the number of base digits in the floating-point significand: normally 53.

double.rounding

the rounding action, one of 0 if floating-point addition chops; 1 if floating-point addition rounds, but not in the IEEE style; 2 if floating-point addition rounds in the IEEE style; 3 if floating-point addition chops, and there is partial underflow; 4 if floating-point addition rounds, but not in the IEEE style, and there is partial underflow; 5 if floating-point addition rounds in the IEEE style, and there is partial underflow. Normally 5.

double.guard

the number of guard digits for multiplication with truncating arithmetic. It is 1 if floating-point arithmetic truncates and more than double digits base-double.base digits participate in the post-normalization shift of the floating-point significand in multiplication, and 0 otherwise. Normally 0.

double.ulp.digits

the largest negative integer i such that 1 + double.base ^ i != 1, except that it is bounded below by -(double.digits + 3). Normally -52.

double.neg.ulp.digits

the largest negative integer i such that 1 - double.base ^ i != 1, except that it is bounded below by -(double.digits + 3). Normally -53.

double.exponent

the number of bits (decimal places if double.base is 10) reserved for the representation of the exponent (including the bias or sign) of a floating-point number. Normally 11.

double.min.exp

the largest in magnitude negative integer i such that double.base ^ i is positive and normalized. Normally -1022.

double.max.exp

the smallest positive power of double.base that overflows. Normally 1024.

integer.max

the largest integer which can be represented. Always $2^31 - 1 = 2147483647$.

sizeof.long

the number of bytes in a C long type: 4 or 8 (most 64-bit systems, but not Windows).

sizeof.longlong

the number of bytes in a C long long type. Will be zero if there is no such type, otherwise usually 8.

sizeof.longdouble

the number of bytes in a C long double type. Will be zero if there is no such type (or its use was disabled when R was built), otherwise possibly 12 (most 32-bit builds) or 16 (most 64-bit builds).

sizeof.pointer

the number of bytes in a C SEXP type. Will be 4 on 32-bit builds and 8 on 64-bit builds of R.

##### Note

sizeof.longdouble only tells you the amount of storage allocated for a long double (which are normally used internally by R for accumulators in e.g.sum, and can be read by readBin). Often what is stored is the 80-bit extended double type of IEC 60559, padded to the double alignment used on the platform --- this seems to be the case for the common R platforms using ix86 and x86_64 chips.

##### References

Cody, W. J. (1988) MACHAR: A subroutine to dynamically determine machine parameters. Transactions on Mathematical Software, 14, 4, 303--311.

.Platform for details of the platform.
library(base) # NOT RUN { .Machine ## or for a neat printout noquote(unlist(format(.Machine))) # }