base (version 3.5.1)

bitwise: Bitwise Logical Operations


Logical operations on integer vectors with elements viewed as sets of bits.


bitwAnd(a, b)
bitwOr(a, b)
bitwXor(a, b)

bitwShiftL(a, n) bitwShiftR(a, n)


a, b

integer vectors; numeric vectors are coerced to integer vectors.


non-negative integer vector of values up to 31.


An integer vector of length the longer of the arguments, or zero length if one is zero-length.

The output element is NA if an input is NA (after coercion) or an invalid shift.


Each element of an integer vector has 32 bits.

Pairwise operations can result in integer NA.

Shifting is done assuming the values represent unsigned integers.

See Also

The logical operators, !, &, |, xor. Notably these do work bitwise for raw arguments.

The classes "octmode" and "hexmode" whose implementation of the standard logical operators is based on these functions.

Package bitops has similar functions for numeric vectors which differ in the way they treat integers \(2^{31}\) or larger.


Run this code
bitwNot(0:12) # -1 -2  ... -13
bitwAnd(15L, 7L) #  7
bitwOr (15L, 7L) # 15
bitwXor(15L, 7L) #  8
bitwXor(-1L, 1L) # -2

## The "same" for 'raw' instead of integer :
rr12 <- as.raw(0:12) ; rbind(rr12, !rr12)
c(r15 <- as.raw(15), r7 <- as.raw(7)) #  0f 07
r15 & r7    # 07
r15 | r7    # 0f
xor(r15, r7)# 08

bitwShiftR(-1, 1:31) # shifts of 2^32-1 = 4294967295
# }

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