```
# NOT RUN {
(ff <- factor(substring("statistics", 1:10, 1:10), levels = letters))
as.integer(ff) # the internal codes
(f. <- factor(ff)) # drops the levels that do not occur
ff[, drop = TRUE] # the same, more transparently
factor(letters[1:20], labels = "letter")
class(ordered(4:1)) # "ordered", inheriting from "factor"
z <- factor(LETTERS[3:1], ordered = TRUE)
## and "relational" methods work:
stopifnot(sort(z)[c(1,3)] == range(z), min(z) < max(z))
# }
# NOT RUN {
## suppose you want "NA" as a level, and to allow missing values.
(x <- factor(c(1, 2, NA), exclude = NULL))
is.na(x)[2] <- TRUE
x # [1] 1 <NA> <NA>
is.na(x)
# [1] FALSE TRUE FALSE
## More rational, since R 3.4.0 :
factor(c(1:2, NA), exclude = "" ) # keeps <NA> , as
factor(c(1:2, NA), exclude = NULL) # always did
## exclude = <character>
z # ordered levels 'A < B < C'
factor(z, exclude = "C") # does exclude
factor(z, exclude = "B") # ditto
## Now, labels maybe duplicated:
## factor() with duplicated labels allowing to "merge levels"
x <- c("Man", "Male", "Man", "Lady", "Female")
## Map from 4 different values to only two levels:
(xf <- factor(x, levels = c("Male", "Man" , "Lady", "Female"),
labels = c("Male", "Male", "Female", "Female")))
#> [1] Male Male Male Female Female
#> Levels: Male Female
## Using addNA()
Month <- airquality$Month
table(addNA(Month))
table(addNA(Month, ifany = TRUE))
# }
```

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