# colSums

##### Form Row and Column Sums and Means

Form row and column sums and means for numeric arrays (or data frames).

##### Usage

```
colSums (x, na.rm = FALSE, dims = 1)
rowSums (x, na.rm = FALSE, dims = 1)
colMeans(x, na.rm = FALSE, dims = 1)
rowMeans(x, na.rm = FALSE, dims = 1)
```.colSums(x, m, n, na.rm = FALSE)
.rowSums(x, m, n, na.rm = FALSE)
.colMeans(x, m, n, na.rm = FALSE)
.rowMeans(x, m, n, na.rm = FALSE)

##### Arguments

- x
an array of two or more dimensions, containing numeric, complex, integer or logical values, or a numeric data frame. For

`.colSums()`

etc, a numeric, integer or logical matrix (or vector of length`m * n`

).- na.rm
logical. Should missing values (including

`NaN`

) be omitted from the calculations?- dims
integer: Which dimensions are regarded as ‘rows’ or ‘columns’ to sum over. For

`row*`

, the sum or mean is over dimensions`dims+1, …`

; for`col*`

it is over dimensions`1:dims`

.- m, n
the dimensions of the matrix

`x`

for`.colSums()`

etc.

##### Details

These functions are equivalent to use of `apply`

with
`FUN = mean`

or `FUN = sum`

with appropriate margins, but
are a lot faster. As they are written for speed, they blur over some
of the subtleties of `NaN`

and `NA`

. If ```
na.rm =
FALSE
```

and either `NaN`

or `NA`

appears in a sum, the
result will be one of `NaN`

or `NA`

, but which might be
platform-dependent.

Notice that omission of missing values is done on a per-column or
per-row basis, so column means may not be over the same set of rows,
and vice versa. To use only complete rows or columns, first select
them with `na.omit`

or `complete.cases`

(possibly on the transpose of `x`

).

The versions with an initial dot in the name (`.colSums()`

etc)
are ‘bare-bones’ versions for use in programming: they apply
only to numeric (like) matrices and do not name the result.

##### Value

A numeric or complex array of suitable size, or a vector if the result
is one-dimensional. For the first four functions the `dimnames`

(or `names`

for a vector result) are taken from the original
array.

If there are no values in a range to be summed over (after removing
missing values with `na.rm = TRUE`

), that
component of the output is set to `0`

(`*Sums`

) or `NaN`

(`*Means`

), consistent with `sum`

and
`mean`

.

##### See Also

##### Examples

`library(base)`

```
# NOT RUN {
## Compute row and column sums for a matrix:
x <- cbind(x1 = 3, x2 = c(4:1, 2:5))
rowSums(x); colSums(x)
dimnames(x)[[1]] <- letters[1:8]
rowSums(x); colSums(x); rowMeans(x); colMeans(x)
x[] <- as.integer(x)
rowSums(x); colSums(x)
x[] <- x < 3
rowSums(x); colSums(x)
x <- cbind(x1 = 3, x2 = c(4:1, 2:5))
x[3, ] <- NA; x[4, 2] <- NA
rowSums(x); colSums(x); rowMeans(x); colMeans(x)
rowSums(x, na.rm = TRUE); colSums(x, na.rm = TRUE)
rowMeans(x, na.rm = TRUE); colMeans(x, na.rm = TRUE)
## an array
dim(UCBAdmissions)
rowSums(UCBAdmissions); rowSums(UCBAdmissions, dims = 2)
colSums(UCBAdmissions); colSums(UCBAdmissions, dims = 2)
## complex case
x <- cbind(x1 = 3 + 2i, x2 = c(4:1, 2:5) - 5i)
x[3, ] <- NA; x[4, 2] <- NA
rowSums(x); colSums(x); rowMeans(x); colMeans(x)
rowSums(x, na.rm = TRUE); colSums(x, na.rm = TRUE)
rowMeans(x, na.rm = TRUE); colMeans(x, na.rm = TRUE)
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package base, version 3.5.3, License: Part of R 3.5.3*

### Community examples

**mark@niemannross.com**at Dec 12, 2018 base v3.5.1

[Example file for LinkedIn Learning:](https://linkedin-learning.pxf.io/rweekly_colmeans) ```r # Description: Example file for mean, colMean, & rowMean # main idea: specialty functions vs apply - speed and clarity of code I.am.a.matrix <- matrix(1:30,nrow = 6) # need some data I.am.a.matrix # what does this look like? # calculating mean with apply ------------------------------------------------------- apply(I.am.a.matrix,1,mean) # equivalent of rowMeans(I.am.a.matrix) apply(I.am.a.matrix,2,mean) # equivalent of colMeans(I.am.a.matrix) # calculating mean with rowMeans ------------------------------------------ rowMeans(I.am.a.matrix) # means of all rows colMeans(I.am.a.matrix) # means of all columns # and other similar functions colSums(I.am.a.matrix) # sum of all columns ```