# rep

##### Replicate Elements of Vectors and Lists

`rep`

replicates the values in `x`

. It is a generic
function, and the (internal) default method is described here.

`rep.int`

and `rep_len`

are faster simplified versions for
two common cases. Internally, they are generic, so methods can be
defined for them.

##### Usage

`rep(x, …)`rep.int(x, times)

rep_len(x, length.out)

##### Arguments

- x
a vector (of any mode including a

`list`

) or a factor or (for`rep`

only) a`POSIXct`

or`POSIXlt`

or`Date`

object; or an S4 object containing such an object.- …
further arguments to be passed to or from other methods. For the internal default method these can include:

`times`

an integer-valued vector giving the (non-negative) number of times to repeat each element if of length

`length(x)`

, or to repeat the whole vector if of length 1. Negative or`NA`

values are an error. A`double`

vector is accepted, other inputs being coerced to an integer or double vector.`length.out`

non-negative integer. The desired length of the output vector. Other inputs will be coerced to a double vector and the first element taken. Ignored if

`NA`

or invalid.`each`

non-negative integer. Each element of

`x`

is repeated`each`

times. Other inputs will be coerced to an integer or double vector and the first element taken. Treated as`1`

if`NA`

or invalid.

- times, length.out
see

`…`

above.

##### Details

The default behaviour is as if the call was

rep(x, times = 1, length.out = NA, each = 1)

. Normally just one of the additional
arguments is specified, but if `each`

is specified with either
of the other two, its replication is performed first, and then that
implied by `times`

or `length.out`

.

If `times`

consists of a single integer, the result consists of
the whole input repeated this many times. If `times`

is a
vector of the same length as `x`

(after replication by
`each`

), the result consists of `x[1]`

repeated
`times[1]`

times, `x[2]`

repeated `times[2]`

times and
so on.

`length.out`

may be given in place of `times`

,
in which case `x`

is repeated as many times as is
necessary to create a vector of this length. If both are given,
`length.out`

takes priority and `times`

is ignored.

Non-integer values of `times`

will be truncated towards zero.
If `times`

is a computed quantity it is prudent to add a small
fuzz or use `round`

. And analogously for `each`

.

If `x`

has length zero and `length.out`

is supplied and is
positive, the values are filled in using the extraction rules, that is
by an `NA`

of the appropriate class for an atomic vector
(`0`

for raw vectors) and `NULL`

for a list.

##### Value

An object of the same type as `x`

.

`rep.int`

and `rep_len`

return no attributes (except the
class if returning a factor).

The default method of `rep`

gives the result names (which will
almost always contain duplicates) if `x`

had names, but retains
no other attributes.

##### Note

Function `rep.int`

is a simple case which was provided as a
separate function partly for S compatibility and partly for speed
(especially when names can be dropped). The performance of `rep`

has been improved since, but `rep.int`

is still at least twice as
fast when `x`

has names.

The name `rep.int`

long precedes making `rep`

generic.

Function `rep`

is a primitive, but (partial) matching of argument
names is performed as for normal functions.

For historical reasons `rep`

(only) works on `NULL`

: the
result is always `NULL`

even when `length.out`

is positive.

Although it has never been documented, these functions have always worked on expression vectors.

##### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

##### See Also

##### Examples

`library(base)`

```
# NOT RUN {
rep(1:4, 2)
rep(1:4, each = 2) # not the same.
rep(1:4, c(2,2,2,2)) # same as second.
rep(1:4, c(2,1,2,1))
rep(1:4, each = 2, len = 4) # first 4 only.
rep(1:4, each = 2, len = 10) # 8 integers plus two recycled 1's.
rep(1:4, each = 2, times = 3) # length 24, 3 complete replications
rep(1, 40*(1-.8)) # length 7 on most platforms
rep(1, 40*(1-.8)+1e-7) # better
## replicate a list
fred <- list(happy = 1:10, name = "squash")
rep(fred, 5)
# date-time objects
x <- .leap.seconds[1:3]
rep(x, 2)
rep(as.POSIXlt(x), rep(2, 3))
## named factor
x <- factor(LETTERS[1:4]); names(x) <- letters[1:4]
x
rep(x, 2)
rep(x, each = 2)
rep.int(x, 2) # no names
rep_len(x, 10)
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package base, version 3.6.1, License: Part of R 3.6.1*