# classDist

##### Compute and predict the distances to class centroids

This function computes the class centroids and covariance matrix for a training set for determining Mahalanobis distances of samples to each class centroid.

- Keywords
- manip

##### Usage

`classDist(x, ...)`## S3 method for class 'default':
classDist(x, y, groups = 5, pca = FALSE, keep = NULL, ...)

## S3 method for class 'classDist':
predict(object, newdata, trans = log, ...)

##### Arguments

- x
- a matrix or data frame of predictor variables
- y
- a numeric or factor vector of class labels
- groups
- an integer for the number of bins for splitting a numeric outcome
- pca
- a logical: should principal components analysis be applied to the dataset prior to splitting the data by class?
- keep
- an integer for the number of PCA components that should
by used to predict new samples (
`NULL`

uses all within a tolerance of`sqrt(.Machine$double.eps)`

) - object
- an object of class
`classDist`

- newdata
- a matrix or data frame. If
`vars`

was previously specified, these columns should be in`newdata`

- trans
- an optional function that can be applied to each class
distance.
`trans = NULL`

will not apply a function - ...
- optional arguments to pass (not currently used)

##### Details

For factor outcomes, the data are split into groups for each class
and the mean and covariance matrix are calculated. These are then
used to compute Mahalanobis distances to the class centers (using
`predict.classDist`

The function will check for non-singular matrices.

For numeric outcomes, the data are split into roughly equal sized
bins based on `groups`

. Percentiles are used to split the data.

##### Value

- for
`classDist`

, an object of class`classDist`

with elements: values a list with elements for each class. Each element contains a mean vector for the class centroid and the inverse of the class covariance matrix classes a character vector of class labels pca the results of `prcomp`

when`pca = TRUE`

call the function call p the number of variables n a vector of samples sizes per class - For
`predict.classDist`

, a matrix with columns for each class. The columns names are the names of the class with the prefix`dist.`

. In the case of numeric`y`

, the class labels are the percentiles. For example, of`groups = 9`

, the variable names would be`dist.11.11`

,`dist.22.22`

, etc.

##### References

Forina et al. CAIMAN brothers: A family of powerful classification and class modeling techniques. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems (2009) vol. 96 (2) pp. 239-245

##### See Also

##### Examples

```
trainSet <- sample(1:150, 100)
distData <- classDist(iris[trainSet, 1:4],
iris$Species[trainSet])
newDist <- predict(distData,
iris[-trainSet, 1:4])
splom(newDist, groups = iris$Species[-trainSet])
```

*Documentation reproduced from package caret, version 4.53, License: GPL-2*