# train

##### Fit Predictive Models over Different Tuning Parameters

This function sets up a grid of tuning parameters for a number of classification and regression routines, fits each model and calculates a resampling based performance measure.

- Keywords
- models

##### Usage

`train(x, ...)`## S3 method for class 'default':
train(x, y,
method = "rf",
preProcess = NULL,
...,
weights = NULL,
metric = ifelse(is.factor(y), "Accuracy", "RMSE"),
maximize = ifelse(metric == "RMSE", FALSE, TRUE),
trControl = trainControl(),
tuneGrid = NULL,
tuneLength = 3)

## S3 method for class 'formula':
train(form, data, ..., weights, subset, na.action, contrasts = NULL)

##### Arguments

- x
- an object where samples are in rows and features are in columns. This could be a simple matrix, data frame or other type (e.g. sparse matrix). See Details below.
- y
- a numeric or factor vector containing the outcome for each sample.
- form
- A formula of the form
`y ~ x1 + x2 + ...`

- data
- Data frame from which variables specified in
`formula`

are preferentially to be taken. - weights
- a numeric vector of case weights. This argument will only affect models that allow case weights.
- subset
- An index vector specifying the cases to be used in the training sample. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)
- na.action
- A function to specify the action to be taken if NAs are found. The default action is for the procedure to fail. An alternative is
`na.omit`

, which leads to rejection of cases with missing values on any required variable. (NOTE: If given, this a - contrasts
- a list of contrasts to be used for some or all of the factors appearing as variables in the model formula.
- method
- a string specifying which classification or regression model to use. Possible values are found using
`names(getModelInfo())`

. Seehttp://topepo.github.io/caret/bytag.html . A list of functions can also be passed for a custom model fun - ...
- arguments passed to the classification or regression routine (such as
`randomForest`

). Errors will occur if values for tuning parameters are passed here. - preProcess
- a string vector that defines an pre-processing of the predictor data. Current possibilities are "BoxCox", "YeoJohnson", "expoTrans", "center", "scale", "range", "knnImpute", "bagImpute", "medianImpute", "pca", "ica" and "spatialSign". The default is no pr
- metric
- a string that specifies what summary metric will be used to select the optimal model. By default, possible values are "RMSE" and "Rsquared" for regression and "Accuracy" and "Kappa" for classification. If custom performance metrics are used (via the
- maximize
- a logical: should the metric be maximized or minimized?
- trControl
- a list of values that define how this function acts. See
`trainControl`

andhttp://topepo.github.io/caret/training.html#custom . (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.) - tuneGrid
- a data frame with possible tuning values. The columns are named the same as the tuning parameters. Use
`getModelInfo`

to get a list of tuning parameters for each model or seehttp://topepo.github.io - tuneLength
- an integer denoting the number of levels for each tuning parameters that should be
generated by
`train`

. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

##### Details

`train`

can be used to tune models by picking the complexity parameters that are associated with the optimal resampling statistics. For particular model, a grid of parameters (if any) is created and the model is trained on slightly different data for each candidate combination of tuning parameters. Across each data set, the performance of held-out samples is calculated and the mean and standard deviation is summarized for each combination. The combination with the optimal resampling statistic is chosen as the final model and the entire training set is used to fit a final model.
The predictors in `x`

can be most any object as long as the underlying model fit function can deal with the object class. The function was designed to work with simple matrices and data frame inputs, so some functionality may not work (e.g. pre-processing). When using string kernels, the vector of character strings should be converted to a matrix with a single column.

More details on this function can be found at

A variety of models are currently available and are enumerated by tag (i.e. their model characteristics) at

##### Value

- A list is returned of class
`train`

containing: method the chosen model. modelType an identifier of the model type. results a data frame the training error rate and values of the tuning parameters. bestTune a data frame with the final parameters. call the (matched) function call with dots expanded dots a list containing any ... values passed to the original call metric a string that specifies what summary metric will be used to select the optimal model. control the list of control parameters. preProcess either `NULL`

or an object of class`preProcess`

finalModel an fit object using the best parameters trainingData a data frame resample A data frame with columns for each performance metric. Each row corresponds to each resample. If leave-one-out cross-validation or out-of-bag estimation methods are requested, this will be `NULL`

. The`returnResamp`

argument of`trainControl`

controls how much of the resampled results are saved.perfNames a character vector of performance metrics that are produced by the summary function maximize a logical recycled from the function arguments. yLimits the range of the training set outcomes. times a list of execution times: `everything`

is for the entire call to`train`

,`final`

for the final model fit and, optionally,`prediction`

for the time to predict new samples (see`trainControl`

)

##### newcommand

- \cpkg
- \bpkg

##### href

- http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=#1
- http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/#1.html

##### pkg

- #1
- #1

##### References

Kuhn (2008), ``Building Predictive Models in R Using the caret'' (

##### See Also

`models`

, `trainControl`

, `update.train`

,
`modelLookup`

,
`createFolds`

##### Examples

```
#######################################
## Classification Example
data(iris)
TrainData <- iris[,1:4]
TrainClasses <- iris[,5]
knnFit1 <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
method = "knn",
preProcess = c("center", "scale"),
tuneLength = 10,
trControl = trainControl(method = "cv"))
knnFit2 <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
method = "knn",
preProcess = c("center", "scale"),
tuneLength = 10,
trControl = trainControl(method = "boot"))
library(MASS)
nnetFit <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
method = "nnet",
preProcess = "range",
tuneLength = 2,
trace = FALSE,
maxit = 100)
#######################################
## Regression Example
library(mlbench)
data(BostonHousing)
lmFit <- train(medv ~ . + rm:lstat,
data = BostonHousing,
method = "lm")
library(rpart)
rpartFit <- train(medv ~ .,
data = BostonHousing,
method = "rpart",
tuneLength = 9)
#######################################
## Example with a custom metric
madSummary <- function (data,
lev = NULL,
model = NULL) {
out <- mad(data$obs - data$pred,
na.rm = TRUE)
names(out) <- "MAD"
out
}
robustControl <- trainControl(summaryFunction = madSummary)
marsGrid <- expand.grid(degree = 1, nprune = (1:10) * 2)
earthFit <- train(medv ~ .,
data = BostonHousing,
method = "earth",
tuneGrid = marsGrid,
metric = "MAD",
maximize = FALSE,
trControl = robustControl)
#######################################
## Parallel Processing Example via multicore package
## library(doMC)
## registerDoMC(2)
## NOTE: don't run models form RWeka when using
### multicore. The session will crash.
## The code for train() does not change:
set.seed(1)
usingMC <- train(medv ~ .,
data = BostonHousing,
method = "glmboost")
## or use:
## library(doMPI) or
## library(doParallel) or
## library(doSMP) and so on
```

*Documentation reproduced from package caret, version 6.0-35, License: GPL-2*