# train

##### Fit Predictive Models over Different Tuning Parameters

This function sets up a grid of tuning parameters for a number of classification and regression routines, fits each model and calculates a resampling based performance measure.

- Keywords
- models

##### Usage

`train(x, ...)`# S3 method for default
train(x, y, method = "rf", preProcess = NULL, ...,
weights = NULL, metric = ifelse(is.factor(y), "Accuracy", "RMSE"),
maximize = ifelse(metric %in% c("RMSE", "logLoss", "MAE"), FALSE, TRUE),
trControl = trainControl(), tuneGrid = NULL,
tuneLength = ifelse(trControl$method == "none", 1, 3))

# S3 method for formula
train(form, data, ..., weights, subset, na.action = na.fail,
contrasts = NULL)

# S3 method for recipe
train(x, data, method = "rf", ...,
metric = ifelse(is.factor(y_dat), "Accuracy", "RMSE"),
maximize = ifelse(metric %in% c("RMSE", "logLoss", "MAE"), FALSE, TRUE),
trControl = trainControl(), tuneGrid = NULL,
tuneLength = ifelse(trControl$method == "none", 1, 3))

##### Arguments

- x
For the default method,

`x`

is an object where samples are in rows and features are in columns. This could be a simple matrix, data frame or other type (e.g. sparse matrix) but must have column names (see Details below). Preprocessing using the`preProcess`

argument only supports matrices or data frames. When using the recipe method,`x`

should be an unprepared`recipe`

object that describes the model terms (i.e. outcome, predictors, etc.) as well as any pre-processing that should be done to the data. This is an alternative approach to specifying the model. Note that, when using the recipe method, any arguments passed to`preProcess`

will be ignored. See the links and example below for more details using recipes.- …
Arguments passed to the classification or regression routine (such as

`randomForest`

). Errors will occur if values for tuning parameters are passed here.- y
A numeric or factor vector containing the outcome for each sample.

- method
A string specifying which classification or regression model to use. Possible values are found using

`names(getModelInfo())`

. See http://topepo.github.io/caret/train-models-by-tag.html. A list of functions can also be passed for a custom model function. See http://topepo.github.io/caret/using-your-own-model-in-train.html for details.- preProcess
A string vector that defines a pre-processing of the predictor data. Current possibilities are "BoxCox", "YeoJohnson", "expoTrans", "center", "scale", "range", "knnImpute", "bagImpute", "medianImpute", "pca", "ica" and "spatialSign". The default is no pre-processing. See

`preProcess`

and`trainControl`

on the procedures and how to adjust them. Pre-processing code is only designed to work when`x`

is a simple matrix or data frame.- weights
A numeric vector of case weights. This argument will only affect models that allow case weights.

- metric
A string that specifies what summary metric will be used to select the optimal model. By default, possible values are "RMSE" and "Rsquared" for regression and "Accuracy" and "Kappa" for classification. If custom performance metrics are used (via the

`summaryFunction`

argument in`trainControl`

, the value of`metric`

should match one of the arguments. If it does not, a warning is issued and the first metric given by the`summaryFunction`

is used. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)- maximize
A logical: should the metric be maximized or minimized?

- trControl
A list of values that define how this function acts. See

`trainControl`

and http://topepo.github.io/caret/using-your-own-model-in-train.html. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)- tuneGrid
A data frame with possible tuning values. The columns are named the same as the tuning parameters. Use

`getModelInfo`

to get a list of tuning parameters for each model or see http://topepo.github.io/caret/available-models.html. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)- tuneLength
An integer denoting the amount of granularity in the tuning parameter grid. By default, this argument is the number of levels for each tuning parameters that should be generated by

`train`

. If`trainControl`

has the option`search = "random"`

, this is the maximum number of tuning parameter combinations that will be generated by the random search. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)- form
A formula of the form

`y ~ x1 + x2 + ...`

- data
Data frame from which variables specified in

`formula`

or`recipe`

are preferentially to be taken.- subset
An index vector specifying the cases to be used in the training sample. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

- na.action
A function to specify the action to be taken if NAs are found. The default action is for the procedure to fail. An alternative is

`na.omit`

, which leads to rejection of cases with missing values on any required variable. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)- contrasts
A list of contrasts to be used for some or all the factors appearing as variables in the model formula.

##### Details

`train`

can be used to tune models by picking the
complexity parameters that are associated with the optimal
resampling statistics. For particular model, a grid of
parameters (if any) is created and the model is trained on
slightly different data for each candidate combination of tuning
parameters. Across each data set, the performance of held-out
samples is calculated and the mean and standard deviation is
summarized for each combination. The combination with the
optimal resampling statistic is chosen as the final model and
the entire training set is used to fit a final model.

The predictors in `x`

can be most any object as long as
the underlying model fit function can deal with the object
class. The function was designed to work with simple matrices
and data frame inputs, so some functionality may not work (e.g.
pre-processing). When using string kernels, the vector of
character strings should be converted to a matrix with a single
column.

More details on this function can be found at http://topepo.github.io/caret/model-training-and-tuning.html.

A variety of models are currently available and are enumerated by tag (i.e. their model characteristics) at http://topepo.github.io/caret/train-models-by-tag.html.

More details on using recipes can be found at
http://topepo.github.io/caret/using-recipes-with-train.html.
Note that case weights can be passed into `train`

using a
role of `"case weight"`

for a single variable. Also, if
there are non-predictor columns that should be used when
determining the model's performance metrics, the role of
`"performance var"`

can be used with multiple columns and
these will be made available during resampling to the
`summaryFunction`

function.

##### Value

A list is returned of class `train`

containing:

The chosen model.

An identifier of the model type.

A data frame the training error rate and values of the tuning parameters.

A data frame with the final parameters.

The (matched) function call with dots expanded

A list containing any ... values passed to the original call

A string that specifies what summary metric will be used to select the optimal model.

The list of control parameters.

Either `NULL`

or an object of class
`preProcess`

A fit object using the best parameters

A data frame

A data frame with columns for each performance
metric. Each row corresponds to each resample. If leave-one-out
cross-validation or out-of-bag estimation methods are requested,
this will be `NULL`

. The `returnResamp`

argument of
`trainControl`

controls how much of the resampled
results are saved.

A character vector of performance metrics that are produced by the summary function

A logical recycled from the function arguments.

The range of the training set outcomes.

A list of execution times: `everything`

is for
the entire call to `train`

, `final`

for the final
model fit and, optionally, `prediction`

for the time to
predict new samples (see `trainControl`

)

##### References

http://topepo.github.io/caret/

Kuhn (2008), ``Building Predictive Models in R Using the caret'' (http://www.jstatsoft.org/article/view/v028i05/v28i05.pdf)

##### See Also

`models`

, `trainControl`

,
`update.train`

, `modelLookup`

,
`createFolds`

, `recipe`

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
# }
# NOT RUN {
#######################################
## Classification Example
data(iris)
TrainData <- iris[,1:4]
TrainClasses <- iris[,5]
knnFit1 <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
method = "knn",
preProcess = c("center", "scale"),
tuneLength = 10,
trControl = trainControl(method = "cv"))
knnFit2 <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
method = "knn",
preProcess = c("center", "scale"),
tuneLength = 10,
trControl = trainControl(method = "boot"))
library(MASS)
nnetFit <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
method = "nnet",
preProcess = "range",
tuneLength = 2,
trace = FALSE,
maxit = 100)
#######################################
## Regression Example
library(mlbench)
data(BostonHousing)
lmFit <- train(medv ~ . + rm:lstat,
data = BostonHousing,
method = "lm")
library(rpart)
rpartFit <- train(medv ~ .,
data = BostonHousing,
method = "rpart",
tuneLength = 9)
#######################################
## Example with a custom metric
madSummary <- function (data,
lev = NULL,
model = NULL) {
out <- mad(data$obs - data$pred,
na.rm = TRUE)
names(out) <- "MAD"
out
}
robustControl <- trainControl(summaryFunction = madSummary)
marsGrid <- expand.grid(degree = 1, nprune = (1:10) * 2)
earthFit <- train(medv ~ .,
data = BostonHousing,
method = "earth",
tuneGrid = marsGrid,
metric = "MAD",
maximize = FALSE,
trControl = robustControl)
#######################################
## Example with a recipe
data(cox2)
cox2 <- cox2Descr
cox2$potency <- cox2IC50
library(recipes)
cox2_recipe <- recipe(potency ~ ., data = cox2) %>%
## Log the outcome
step_log(potency, base = 10) %>%
## Remove sparse and unbalanced predictors
step_nzv(all_predictors()) %>%
## Surface area predictors are highly correlated so
## conduct PCA just on these.
step_pca(contains("VSA"), prefix = "surf_area_",
threshold = .95) %>%
## Remove other highly correlated predictors
step_corr(all_predictors(), -starts_with("surf_area_"),
threshold = .90) %>%
## Center and scale all of the non-PCA predictors
step_center(all_predictors(), -starts_with("surf_area_")) %>%
step_scale(all_predictors(), -starts_with("surf_area_"))
set.seed(888)
cox2_lm <- train(cox2_recipe,
data = cox2,
method = "lm",
trControl = trainControl(method = "cv"))
#######################################
## Parallel Processing Example via multicore package
## library(doMC)
## registerDoMC(2)
## NOTE: don't run models form RWeka when using
### multicore. The session will crash.
## The code for train() does not change:
set.seed(1)
usingMC <- train(medv ~ .,
data = BostonHousing,
method = "glmboost")
## or use:
## library(doMPI) or
## library(doParallel) or
## library(doSMP) and so on
# }
# NOT RUN {
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package caret, version 6.0-80, License: GPL (>= 2)*