train

0th

Percentile

Fit Predictive Models over Different Tuning Parameters

This function sets up a grid of tuning parameters for a number of classification and regression routines, fits each model and calculates a resampling based performance measure.

Keywords
models
Usage
train(x, ...)

# S3 method for default train(x, y, method = "rf", preProcess = NULL, ..., weights = NULL, metric = ifelse(is.factor(y), "Accuracy", "RMSE"), maximize = ifelse(metric %in% c("RMSE", "logLoss", "MAE"), FALSE, TRUE), trControl = trainControl(), tuneGrid = NULL, tuneLength = ifelse(trControl$method == "none", 1, 3))

# S3 method for formula train(form, data, ..., weights, subset, na.action = na.fail, contrasts = NULL)

# S3 method for recipe train(x, data, method = "rf", ..., metric = ifelse(is.factor(y_dat), "Accuracy", "RMSE"), maximize = ifelse(metric %in% c("RMSE", "logLoss", "MAE"), FALSE, TRUE), trControl = trainControl(), tuneGrid = NULL, tuneLength = ifelse(trControl$method == "none", 1, 3))

Arguments
x

For the default method, x is an object where samples are in rows and features are in columns. This could be a simple matrix, data frame or other type (e.g. sparse matrix) but must have column names (see Details below). Preprocessing using the preProcess argument only supports matrices or data frames. When using the recipe method, x should be an unprepared recipe object that describes the model terms (i.e. outcome, predictors, etc.) as well as any pre-processing that should be done to the data. This is an alternative approach to specifying the model. Note that, when using the recipe method, any arguments passed to preProcess will be ignored. See the links and example below for more details using recipes.

Arguments passed to the classification or regression routine (such as randomForest). Errors will occur if values for tuning parameters are passed here.

y

A numeric or factor vector containing the outcome for each sample.

method

A string specifying which classification or regression model to use. Possible values are found using names(getModelInfo()). See http://topepo.github.io/caret/train-models-by-tag.html. A list of functions can also be passed for a custom model function. See http://topepo.github.io/caret/using-your-own-model-in-train.html for details.

preProcess

A string vector that defines a pre-processing of the predictor data. Current possibilities are "BoxCox", "YeoJohnson", "expoTrans", "center", "scale", "range", "knnImpute", "bagImpute", "medianImpute", "pca", "ica" and "spatialSign". The default is no pre-processing. See preProcess and trainControl on the procedures and how to adjust them. Pre-processing code is only designed to work when x is a simple matrix or data frame.

weights

A numeric vector of case weights. This argument will only affect models that allow case weights.

metric

A string that specifies what summary metric will be used to select the optimal model. By default, possible values are "RMSE" and "Rsquared" for regression and "Accuracy" and "Kappa" for classification. If custom performance metrics are used (via the summaryFunction argument in trainControl, the value of metric should match one of the arguments. If it does not, a warning is issued and the first metric given by the summaryFunction is used. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

maximize

A logical: should the metric be maximized or minimized?

trControl

A list of values that define how this function acts. See trainControl and http://topepo.github.io/caret/using-your-own-model-in-train.html. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

tuneGrid

A data frame with possible tuning values. The columns are named the same as the tuning parameters. Use getModelInfo to get a list of tuning parameters for each model or see http://topepo.github.io/caret/available-models.html. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

tuneLength

An integer denoting the amount of granularity in the tuning parameter grid. By default, this argument is the number of levels for each tuning parameters that should be generated by train. If trainControl has the option search = "random", this is the maximum number of tuning parameter combinations that will be generated by the random search. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

form

A formula of the form y ~ x1 + x2 + ...

data

Data frame from which variables specified in formula or recipe are preferentially to be taken.

subset

An index vector specifying the cases to be used in the training sample. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

na.action

A function to specify the action to be taken if NAs are found. The default action is for the procedure to fail. An alternative is na.omit, which leads to rejection of cases with missing values on any required variable. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

contrasts

A list of contrasts to be used for some or all the factors appearing as variables in the model formula.

Details

train can be used to tune models by picking the complexity parameters that are associated with the optimal resampling statistics. For particular model, a grid of parameters (if any) is created and the model is trained on slightly different data for each candidate combination of tuning parameters. Across each data set, the performance of held-out samples is calculated and the mean and standard deviation is summarized for each combination. The combination with the optimal resampling statistic is chosen as the final model and the entire training set is used to fit a final model.

The predictors in x can be most any object as long as the underlying model fit function can deal with the object class. The function was designed to work with simple matrices and data frame inputs, so some functionality may not work (e.g. pre-processing). When using string kernels, the vector of character strings should be converted to a matrix with a single column.

More details on this function can be found at http://topepo.github.io/caret/model-training-and-tuning.html.

A variety of models are currently available and are enumerated by tag (i.e. their model characteristics) at http://topepo.github.io/caret/train-models-by-tag.html.

More details on using recipes can be found at http://topepo.github.io/caret/using-recipes-with-train.html. Note that case weights can be passed into train using a role of "case weight" for a single variable. Also, if there are non-predictor columns that should be used when determining the model's performance metrics, the role of "performance var" can be used with multiple columns and these will be made available during resampling to the summaryFunction function.

Value

A list is returned of class train containing:

method

The chosen model.

modelType

An identifier of the model type.

results

A data frame the training error rate and values of the tuning parameters.

bestTune

A data frame with the final parameters.

call

The (matched) function call with dots expanded

dots

A list containing any ... values passed to the original call

metric

A string that specifies what summary metric will be used to select the optimal model.

control

The list of control parameters.

preProcess

Either NULL or an object of class preProcess

finalModel

A fit object using the best parameters

trainingData

A data frame

resample

A data frame with columns for each performance metric. Each row corresponds to each resample. If leave-one-out cross-validation or out-of-bag estimation methods are requested, this will be NULL. The returnResamp argument of trainControl controls how much of the resampled results are saved.

perfNames

A character vector of performance metrics that are produced by the summary function

maximize

A logical recycled from the function arguments.

yLimits

The range of the training set outcomes.

times

A list of execution times: everything is for the entire call to train, final for the final model fit and, optionally, prediction for the time to predict new samples (see trainControl)

References

http://topepo.github.io/caret/

Kuhn (2008), ``Building Predictive Models in R Using the caret'' (http://www.jstatsoft.org/article/view/v028i05/v28i05.pdf)

https://topepo.github.io/recipes/

See Also

models, trainControl, update.train, modelLookup, createFolds, recipe

Aliases
  • train
  • train.default
  • train.formula
  • train.recipe
Examples
# NOT RUN {
# }
# NOT RUN {
#######################################
## Classification Example

data(iris)
TrainData <- iris[,1:4]
TrainClasses <- iris[,5]

knnFit1 <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
                 method = "knn",
                 preProcess = c("center", "scale"),
                 tuneLength = 10,
                 trControl = trainControl(method = "cv"))

knnFit2 <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
                 method = "knn",
                 preProcess = c("center", "scale"),
                 tuneLength = 10,
                 trControl = trainControl(method = "boot"))


library(MASS)
nnetFit <- train(TrainData, TrainClasses,
                 method = "nnet",
                 preProcess = "range",
                 tuneLength = 2,
                 trace = FALSE,
                 maxit = 100)

#######################################
## Regression Example

library(mlbench)
data(BostonHousing)

lmFit <- train(medv ~ . + rm:lstat,
               data = BostonHousing,
               method = "lm")

library(rpart)
rpartFit <- train(medv ~ .,
                  data = BostonHousing,
                  method = "rpart",
                  tuneLength = 9)

#######################################
## Example with a custom metric

madSummary <- function (data,
                        lev = NULL,
                        model = NULL) {
  out <- mad(data$obs - data$pred,
             na.rm = TRUE)
  names(out) <- "MAD"
  out
}

robustControl <- trainControl(summaryFunction = madSummary)
marsGrid <- expand.grid(degree = 1, nprune = (1:10) * 2)

earthFit <- train(medv ~ .,
                  data = BostonHousing,
                  method = "earth",
                  tuneGrid = marsGrid,
                  metric = "MAD",
                  maximize = FALSE,
                  trControl = robustControl)


#######################################
## Example with a recipe

data(cox2)

cox2 <- cox2Descr
cox2$potency <- cox2IC50

library(recipes)

cox2_recipe <- recipe(potency ~ ., data = cox2) %>%
  ## Log the outcome
  step_log(potency, base = 10) %>%
  ## Remove sparse and unbalanced predictors
  step_nzv(all_predictors()) %>%
  ## Surface area predictors are highly correlated so
  ## conduct PCA just on these.
  step_pca(contains("VSA"), prefix = "surf_area_",
           threshold = .95) %>%
  ## Remove other highly correlated predictors
  step_corr(all_predictors(), -starts_with("surf_area_"),
            threshold = .90) %>%
  ## Center and scale all of the non-PCA predictors
  step_center(all_predictors(), -starts_with("surf_area_")) %>%
  step_scale(all_predictors(), -starts_with("surf_area_"))

set.seed(888)
cox2_lm <- train(cox2_recipe,
                 data = cox2,
                 method = "lm",
                 trControl = trainControl(method = "cv"))

#######################################
## Parallel Processing Example via multicore package

## library(doMC)
## registerDoMC(2)

## NOTE: don't run models form RWeka when using
### multicore. The session will crash.

## The code for train() does not change:
set.seed(1)
usingMC <-  train(medv ~ .,
                  data = BostonHousing,
                  method = "glmboost")

## or use:
## library(doMPI) or
## library(doParallel) or
## library(doSMP) and so on

# }
# NOT RUN {

# }
Documentation reproduced from package caret, version 6.0-81, License: GPL (>= 2)

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