# avNNet

##### Neural Networks Using Model Averaging

Aggregate several neural network models

- Keywords
- neural

##### Usage

`avNNet(x, ...)`# S3 method for formula
avNNet(
formula,
data,
weights,
...,
repeats = 5,
bag = FALSE,
allowParallel = TRUE,
seeds = sample.int(1e+05, repeats),
subset,
na.action,
contrasts = NULL
)

# S3 method for default
avNNet(
x,
y,
repeats = 5,
bag = FALSE,
allowParallel = TRUE,
seeds = sample.int(1e+05, repeats),
...
)

# S3 method for avNNet
print(x, ...)

# S3 method for avNNet
predict(object, newdata, type = c("raw", "class", "prob"), ...)

##### Arguments

- x
matrix or data frame of

`x`

values for examples.- …
arguments passed to

`nnet`

- formula
A formula of the form

`class ~ x1 + x2 + …`

- data
Data frame from which variables specified in

`formula`

are preferentially to be taken.- weights
(case) weights for each example - if missing defaults to 1.

- repeats
the number of neural networks with different random number seeds

- bag
a logical for bagging for each repeat

- allowParallel
if a parallel backend is loaded and available, should the function use it?

- seeds
random number seeds that can be set prior to bagging (if done) and network creation. This helps maintain reproducibility when models are run in parallel.

- subset
An index vector specifying the cases to be used in the training sample. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)

- na.action
A function to specify the action to be taken if

`NA`

s are found. The default action is for the procedure to fail. An alternative is`na.omit`

, which leads to rejection of cases with missing values on any required variable. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)- contrasts
a list of contrasts to be used for some or all of the factors appearing as variables in the model formula.

- y
matrix or data frame of target values for examples.

- object
an object of class

`avNNet`

as returned by`avNNet`

.- newdata
matrix or data frame of test examples. A vector is considered to be a row vector comprising a single case.

- type
Type of output, either:

`raw`

for the raw outputs,`code`

for the predicted class or`prob`

for the class probabilities.

##### Details

Following Ripley (1996), the same neural network model is fit using different random number seeds. All the resulting models are used for prediction. For regression, the output from each network are averaged. For classification, the model scores are first averaged, then translated to predicted classes. Bagging can also be used to create the models.

If a parallel backend is registered, the foreach package is used to train the networks in parallel.

##### Value

For `avNNet`

, an object of `"avNNet"`

or `"avNNet.formula"`

. Items of interest in #' the output are:

a list of the models generated from `nnet`

an echo of the model input

if any predictors had only one distinct value, this is a character string of the #' remaining columns. Otherwise a value of `NULL`

##### References

Ripley, B. D. (1996)
*Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks.* Cambridge.

##### See Also

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
data(BloodBrain)
# }
# NOT RUN {
modelFit <- avNNet(bbbDescr, logBBB, size = 5, linout = TRUE, trace = FALSE)
modelFit
predict(modelFit, bbbDescr)
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package caret, version 6.0-85, License: GPL (>= 2)*