```
# on vectors, returns a vector as long as length(n) == 1, #1127
x = 1:5
# lag with n=1 and pad with NA (returns vector)
shift(x, n=1, fill=NA, type="lag")
# lag with n=1 and 2, and pad with 0 (returns list)
shift(x, n=1:2, fill=0, type="lag")
# getting a window by using positive and negative n:
shift(x, n = -1:1)
shift(x, n = -1:1, type = "shift", give.names = TRUE)
# on data.tables
DT = data.table(year=2010:2014, v1=runif(5), v2=1:5, v3=letters[1:5])
# lag columns 'v1,v2,v3' DT by 1 and fill with 0
cols = c("v1","v2","v3")
anscols = paste("lead", cols, sep="_")
DT[, (anscols) := shift(.SD, 1, 0, "lead"), .SDcols=cols]
# return a new data.table instead of updating
# with names automatically set
DT = data.table(year=2010:2014, v1=runif(5), v2=1:5, v3=letters[1:5])
DT[, shift(.SD, 1:2, NA, "lead", TRUE), .SDcols=2:4]
# lag/lead in the right order
DT = data.table(year=2010:2014, v1=runif(5), v2=1:5, v3=letters[1:5])
DT = DT[sample(nrow(DT))]
# add lag=1 for columns 'v1,v2,v3' in increasing order of 'year'
cols = c("v1","v2","v3")
anscols = paste("lag", cols, sep="_")
DT[order(year), (cols) := shift(.SD, 1, type="lag"), .SDcols=cols]
DT[order(year)]
# while grouping
DT = data.table(year=rep(2010:2011, each=3), v1=1:6)
DT[, c("lag1", "lag2") := shift(.SD, 1:2), by=year]
# on lists
ll = list(1:3, letters[4:1], runif(2))
shift(ll, 1, type="lead")
shift(ll, 1, type="lead", give.names=TRUE)
shift(ll, 1:2, type="lead")
# fill using first or last by group
DT = data.table(x=1:6, g=rep(1:2, each=3))
DT[ , shift(x, fill=x[1L]), by=g]
DT[ , shift(x, fill=x[.N], type="lead"), by=g]
```

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