# UKDriverDeaths

##### Road Casualties in Great Britain 1969--84

`UKDriverDeaths`

is a time series giving the monthly totals
of car drivers in
Great Britain killed or seriously injured Jan 1969 to Dec 1984.
Compulsory wearing of seat belts was introduced on 31 Jan 1983.

`Seatbelts`

is more information on the same problem.

- Keywords
- datasets

##### Usage

```
UKDriverDeaths
Seatbelts
```

##### Format

`Seatbelts`

is a multiple time series, with columns

`DriversKilled`

- car drivers killed.
`drivers`

- same as
`UKDriverDeaths`

. `front`

- front-seat passengers killed or seriously injured.
`rear`

- rear-seat passengers killed or seriously injured.
`kms`

- distance driven.
`PetrolPrice`

- petrol price.
`VanKilled`

- number of van (‘light goods vehicle’) drivers.
`law`

- 0/1: was the law in effect that month?

##### Source

Harvey, A.C. (1989)
*Forecasting, Structural Time Series Models and the Kalman Filter.*
Cambridge University Press, pp.\ifelse{latex}{\out{~}}{ } 519--523. Durbin, J. and Koopman, S. J. (2001) *Time Series Analysis by
State Space Methods.* Oxford University Press.
http://www.ssfpack.com/dkbook/

##### References

Harvey, A. C. and Durbin, J. (1986) The effects of seat belt
legislation on British road casualties: A case study in structural
time series modelling. *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society*
series B, **149**, 187--227.

##### Examples

`library(datasets)`

```
require(stats); require(graphics)
## work with pre-seatbelt period to identify a model, use logs
work <- window(log10(UKDriverDeaths), end = 1982+11/12)
par(mfrow = c(3, 1))
plot(work); acf(work); pacf(work)
par(mfrow = c(1, 1))
(fit <- arima(work, c(1, 0, 0), seasonal = list(order = c(1, 0, 0))))
z <- predict(fit, n.ahead = 24)
ts.plot(log10(UKDriverDeaths), z$pred, z$pred+2*z$se, z$pred-2*z$se,
lty = c(1, 3, 2, 2), col = c("black", "red", "blue", "blue"))
## now see the effect of the explanatory variables
X <- Seatbelts[, c("kms", "PetrolPrice", "law")]
X[, 1] <- log10(X[, 1]) - 4
arima(log10(Seatbelts[, "drivers"]), c(1, 0, 0),
seasonal = list(order = c(1, 0, 0)), xreg = X)
```

*Documentation reproduced from package datasets, version 3.2.1, License: Part of R 3.2.1*