# longley

##### Longley's Economic Regression Data

A macroeconomic data set which provides a well-known example for a highly collinear regression.

- Keywords
- datasets

##### Usage

`longley`

##### Format

A data frame with 7 economical variables, observed yearly from 1947 to 1962 ($n=16$).

`GNP.deflator`

- GNP implicit price deflator ($1954=100$)
`GNP`

- Gross National Product.
`Unemployed`

- number of unemployed.
`Armed.Forces`

- number of people in the armed forces.
`Population`

- ‘noninstitutionalized’ population $\ge$ 14 years of age.
`Year`

- the year (time).
`Employed`

- number of people employed.

`lm(Employed ~ .)`

is known to be highly
collinear.
##### Source

J. W. Longley (1967)
An appraisal of least-squares programs from the point of view of the
user.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association* **62**,
819--841.

##### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

##### Examples

`library(datasets)`

```
require(stats); require(graphics)
## give the data set in the form it is used in S-PLUS:
longley.x <- data.matrix(longley[, 1:6])
longley.y <- longley[, "Employed"]
pairs(longley, main = "longley data")
summary(fm1 <- lm(Employed ~ ., data = longley))
opar <- par(mfrow = c(2, 2), oma = c(0, 0, 1.1, 0),
mar = c(4.1, 4.1, 2.1, 1.1))
plot(fm1)
par(opar)
```

*Documentation reproduced from package datasets, version 3.2.1, License: Part of R 3.2.1*

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