dendextend v1.13.2


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Extending 'dendrogram' Functionality in R

Offers a set of functions for extending 'dendrogram' objects in R, letting you visualize and compare trees of 'hierarchical clusterings'. You can (1) Adjust a tree's graphical parameters - the color, size, type, etc of its branches, nodes and labels. (2) Visually and statistically compare different 'dendrograms' to one another.


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dendextend website (built using pkgdown)

Table of contents:


Class "dendrogram" provides general functions for handling tree-like structures in R. It is intended as a replacement for similar functions in hierarchical clustering and classification/regression trees, such that all of these can use the same engine for plotting or cutting trees.

However, many basic features are still missing from the dendrogram class. This package aims at filling in some gaps.

The dendextend package extending R core dendrogram functions.


To install and load dendextend, simply use:

install.packages('dendextend') # stable CRAN version
library("dendextend") # load the package



Also ceck out the dendextend tag in stackoverflow for more examples.

A notable sister package for dendextend is heatmaply for creating interactive cluster heatmaps using R (combining dendextend and plotly).

Getting help

Please post your question to stackoverflow using the tags: dendextend and r.

How to cite the dendextend package

The methods within the code package can be cited as:

 Tal Galili (2015). dendextend: an R package for visualizing, adjusting, and comparing trees of
 hierarchical clustering. Bioinformatics. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btv428

A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users is

   author = {Tal Galili},
   title = {dendextend: an R package for visualizing, adjusting, and comparing trees of hierarchical clustering},
   journal = {Bioinformatics},
   year = {2015},
   doi = {10.1093/bioinformatics/btv428},
   url = {},
   eprint = {},

This free open-source software implements academic research by the authors and co-workers. If you use it, please support the project by citing the appropriate journal articles.

Submitting bug reports and patches

You are welcome to:

Before reporting bugs, please make sure you're using the latest version from github:

install.packages.2 <- function (pkg) if (!require(pkg)) install.packages(pkg);

# Having colorspace is also useful, since it is used
# In various examples in the vignettes

Latest news

You can see the most recent changes to the package in the file

Code of conduct

Please note that this project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct. By participating in this project you agree to abide by its terms.

Functions in dendextend

Name Description
collapse_branch Collapse branches under a tolerance level
bakers_gamma_for_2_k_matrix Bakers Gamma for two k matrices
assign_values_to_leaves_edgePar Assign values to edgePar of dendrogram's leaves
cutree_1k.dendrogram cutree for dendrogram (by 1 k value only!)
cutree Cut a Tree (Dendrogram/hclust/phylo) into Groups of Data
assign_values_to_nodes_nodePar Assign values to nodePar of dendrogram's nodes
click_rotate Interactively rotate a tree object
cutree_1h.dendrogram cutree for dendrogram (by 1 height only!)
cut_lower_fun Cut a dendrogram - and run a function on the output
assign_values_to_leaves_nodePar Assign values to nodePar of dendrogram's leaves
branches_attr_by_lists Change col/lwd/lty of branches from the root down to clusters defined by list of labels of respective members
circlize_dendrogram Plot a circlized dendrograms
as.dendlist Try to coerce something into a dendlist
dist_long Turns a dist object to a "long" table
all_unique Check if all the elements in a vector are unique
cor_bakers_gamma Baker's Gamma correlation coefficient
duplicate_leaf Duplicate a leaf X times
color_labels Color dend's labels according to sub-clusters
color_branches Color tree's branches according to sub-clusters
cor_common_nodes Proportion of commong nodes between two trees
cor.dendlist Correlation matrix between a list of trees.
DendSer.dendrogram Tries to run DendSer on a dendrogram
as_hclust_fixed Convert dendrogram Objects to Class hclust
as.phylo.dendrogram Convert a dendrogram into phylo
branches_attr_by_clusters Change col/lwd/lty of branches based on clusters
branches_attr_by_labels Change col/lwd/lty of branches matching labels condition
count_terminal_nodes Counts the number of terminal nodes (merging 0 nodes!)
cor_cophenetic Cophenetic correlation between two trees
dendextend_options Access to dendextend_options
find_dendrogram Search for the subdendrogram structure composed of indicated labels
find_k Find the (estimated) number of clusters for a dendrogram using average silhouette width
distinct_edges Finds distinct edges in one tree compared to another
dendlist Creating a dendlist object from several dendrograms
flatten.dendrogram Flatten the branches of a dendrogram's root
fix_members_attr.dendrogram Fix members attr in a dendrogram
get_leaves_branches_attr Get an attribute of the branches of a dendrogram's leaves
identify.dendrogram Identify Clusters in a Dendrogram (not hclust)
intersect_trees Intersect trees
entanglement Measures entanglement between two trees
get_leaves_edgePar Get edgePar of dendrogram's leaves
get_leaves_nodePar Get nodePar of dendrogram's leaves
has_component_in_attribute Does a dendrogram has an edgePar/nodePar component?
heights_per_k.dendrogram Which height will result in which k for a dendrogram
get_nodes_attr Get attributes of dendrogram's nodes
get_nodes_xy Get the x-y coordinates of a dendrogram's nodes
highlight_distinct_edges Highlight distint edges in a tree (compared to another one)
get_leaves_branches_col Get the colors of the branches of a dendrogram's leaves
match_order_by_labels Adjust the order of one dendrogram based on another (using labels)
highlight_branches_col Highlight a dendrogram's branches heights via color and line-width
is_some_class Is the object of some class
dend_diff Plots two trees side by side, highlighting edges unique to each tree in red.
assign_dendextend_options Populates dendextend functions into dendextend_options
assign_values_to_branches_edgePar Assign values to edgePar of dendrogram's branches
dendextend-package Functions for extending dendrogram objects
cor_FM_index Correlation of FM_index for some k
colored_dots Add colored dots beside a dendrogram
flip_leaves Flip leaves
colored_bars Add colored bars to a dendrogram
get_branches_heights Get height attributes from a dendrogram
dist.dendlist Topological Distances Between Two dendrograms
common_subtrees_clusters Find clusters of common subtrees
color_unique_labels Color unique labels in a dendrogram
min_depth Find minimum/maximum depth of a dendrogram
fac2num Turns a factor into a number
leaf_Colors Return the leaf Colors of a dendrogram
khan Microarray gene expression dataset from Khan et al., 2001. Subset of 306 genes.
match_order_dendrogram_by_old_order Adjust the order of one dendrogram based on another (using order)
ladderize Ladderize a Tree
get_leaves_attr Get/set attributes of dendrogram's leaves
order.dendrogram<- order.dendrogram<- assignment operator
is_null_list Checks if the value is and empty list()
is.natural.number Check if numbers are natural
order.hclust Ordering of the Leaves in a hclust Dendrogram
labels_colors Retrieve/assign colors to the labels of a dendrogram
dend_expend Finds a "good" dendrogram for a dist
get_childrens_heights Get height attributes from a dendrogram's children
lowest_common_branch Find lowest common branch were the two items are shared
get_root_branches_attr get attributes from the dendrogram's root(!) branches
get_subdendrograms Extract a list of k subdendrograms from a given dendrogram object
ggdend Creates dendrogram plot using ggplot.
hang.dendrogram Hang dendrogram leaves
na_locf Last Observation Carried Forward
rank_values_with_clusters Rank a vector based on clusters
nleaves Counts the number of leaves in a tree
partition_leaves A list with labels for each subtree (edge)
pvclust_show_signif_gradient Significance gradient of branches in a dendrogram (via pvclust)
pvclust_show_signif The significant branches in a dendrogram, based on a pvclust object
nnodes Counts the number of nodes (Vertices) in a tree
noded_with_condition Find which nodes satisfies a condition
plot_horiz.dendrogram Plotting a left-tip-adjusted horizontal dendrogram
rotate Rotate a tree object
prune_leaf Trims one leaf from a dendrogram
set_labels Set/place new labels in a dendrogram
untangle_step_rotate_2side Stepwise untangle two trees one at a time
which_leaf Which node is a leaf?
pvclust_edges Get Pvclust Edges Information
set Set (/update) features to a dendrogram
rotate_DendSer Rotates dend based on DendSer
rect.dendrogram Draw Rectangles Around a Dendrogram's Clusters
remove_nodes_nodePar Remove all nodePar values from a dendrogram's nodes
rank_order.dendrogram Fix rank of leaves order values in a dendrogram
rank_branches Rank branches' heights
remove_branches_edgePar Remove all edgePar values from a dendrogram's branches
labels<- "label" assignment operator
labels_cex Retrieve/assign cex to the labels of a dendrogram
raise.dendrogram Raise the height of a dendrogram tree
prune_common_subtrees.dendlist Prune trees to their common subtrees
reexports Objects exported from other packages
pvrect2 Draw Rectangles Around a Dendrogram's Clusters with High/Low P-values
prune Prunes a tree (using leaves' labels)
unclass_dend unclass an entire dendrogram tree
unbranch unbranch trees
reindex_dend Reindexing a pruned dendrogram
sample.dendrogram Sample a tree
untangle_random_search Untangle - random search
remove_leaves_nodePar Remove all nodePar values from a dendrogram's leaves
rllply recursivly apply a function on a list
shuffle Random rotation of trees
tanglegram Tanglegram plot
untangle_step_rotate_1side Stepwise untangle one tree compared to another
untangle untangle dendrograms
untangle_DendSer Tries to run DendSer on a dendrogram
theme_dendro Creates completely blank theme in ggplot
seriate_dendrogram Rotates a dendrogram based on a seriation of a distance matrix
sort_levels_values Sort the values level in a vector
sort_dist_mat Sorts a distance matrix by rows and columns names
which_node Which node id is common to a group of labels
sort_2_clusters_vectors Sorts two clusters vector by their names
Bk_plot Bk plot - ploting the Fowlkes-Mallows Index of two dendrogram for various k's
all_couple_rotations_at_k Rotate tree branches for k
FM_index_permutation Calculating Fowlkes-Mallows Index under H0
Bk_permutations Bk permutation - Calculating Fowlkes-Mallows Index for two dendrogram
FM_index_profdpm Calculating Fowlkes-Mallows index using the profdpm R package
Bk Bk - Calculating Fowlkes-Mallows Index for two dendrogram
all.equal.dendrogram Global Comparison of two (or more) dendrograms
FM_index Calculating Fowlkes-Mallows Index
FM_index_R Calculating Fowlkes-Mallows index in R
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Vignettes of dendextend

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