# devtools v2.1.0

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## Tools to Make Developing R Packages Easier

Collection of package development tools.

# devtools

The aim of devtools is to make package development easier by providing R functions that simplify and expedite common tasks. R Packages is a book based around this workflow.

## Installation

# Install devtools from CRAN
install.packages("devtools")

# Or the development version from GitHub:
# install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("r-lib/devtools")


## Usage

All devtools functions accept a path as an argument, e.g. load_all("path/to/mypkg"). If you don't specify a path, devtools will look in the current working directory - this is recommended practice.

• load_all() simulates installing and reloading your package, loading R code in R/, compiled shared objects in src/ and data files in data/. During development you usually want to access all functions (even un-exported internal ones) so load_all() works as if all functions were exported in the package NAMESPACE.

• document() updates generated documentation in man/, file collation and NAMESPACE.

• test() reloads your code with load_all(), then runs all testthat tests.

• test_coverage() runs test coverage on your package with covr. This makes it easy to see what parts of your package could use more tests!

### Building and installing:

• install() reinstalls the package, detaches the currently loaded version then reloads the new version with library(). Reloading a package is not guaranteed to work: see the documentation for unload() for caveats.

• build() builds a package file from package sources. You can use it to build a binary version of your package.

• install_* functions install an R package:

• install_github() from GitHub
• install_gitlab() from GitLab
• install_bitbucket() from Bitbucket
• install_url() from an arbitrary url
• install_git() and install_svn() from an arbitrary git or SVN repository
• install_local() from a local file on disk
• install_version() from a specific version on CRAN
• update_packages() updates a package to the latest version. This works both on packages installed from CRAN as well as those installed from any of the install_* functions.

### Check and release:

• check() updates the documentation, then builds and checks the package locally. check_win() checks a package using win-builder, and check_rhub() checks a package using r-hub. This allows you to easily check your package on all systems CRAN uses before submission.

• release() makes sure everything is ok with your package (including asking you a number of questions), then builds and uploads to CRAN.

## Learning more

R package development can be intimidating, however there are now a number of valuable resources to help!

1. R Packages is a book that gives a comprehensive treatment of all common parts of package development and uses devtools throughout.

• The first edition is available at http://r-pkgs.had.co.nz, but note that it has grown somewhat out of sync with the current version of devtools.
• A second edition is under development and is evolving to reflect the current state of devtools. It is available at https://r-pkgs.org.
• The Whole Game and Package structure chapters make great places to start.
2. RStudio community - package development is a great place to ask specific questions related to package development.

3. rOpenSci packages has extensive documentation on best practices for R packages looking to be contributed to rOpenSci, but also very useful general recommendations for package authors.

4. There are a number of fantastic blog posts on writing your first package, including

5. Writing R Extensions is the exhaustive, canonical reference for writing R packages, maintained by the R core developers.

## Conscious uncoupling

devtools started off as a lean-and-mean package to facilitate local package development, but over the years it accumulated more and more functionality. Currently devtools is undergoing a conscious uncoupling to split out functionality into smaller, more tightly focussed packages. This includes:

• testthat: Writing and running tests (i.e. test()).

• roxygen2: Function and package documentation (i.e. document()).

• remotes: Installing packages (i.e. install_github()).

• pkgbuild: Building binary packages (including checking if build tools are available) (i.e. build()).

• pkgload: Simulating package loading (i.e. load_all()).

• rcmdcheck: Running R CMD check and reporting the results (i.e. check()).

• revdepcheck: Running R CMD check on all reverse dependencies, and figuring out what's changed since the last CRAN release (i.e. revdep_check()).

• sessioninfo: R session info (i.e. session_info()).

• usethis: Automating package setup (i.e. use_test()).

Generally, you should not need to worry about these different packages, because devtools installs them all automatically. You will need to care, however, if you're filing a bug because reporting it at the correct place will lead to a speedier resolution.

## Code of conduct

Please note that the devtools project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct. By contributing to this project, you agree to abide by its terms.

## Functions in devtools

 Name Description build_site Execute pkgdown build_site in a package clean_vignettes Clean built vignettes. loaded_packages Return a vector of names of attached packages release_checks Custom devtools release checks. load_all Load complete package. release Release package to CRAN. dev_mode Activate and deactivate development mode. missing_s3 Find missing s3 exports. package_file Find file in a package. lint Lint all source files in a package. is.package Is the object a package? build_manual Create package pdf manual document Use roxygen to document a package. devtools-deprecated Deprecated Functions dr_devtools Diagnose potential devtools issues reload Unload and reload package. revdep Reverse dependency tools. dev_packages Return a vector of names of packages loaded by devtools devtest Return the path to one of the packages in the devtools test dir source_url Run a script through some protocols such as http, https, ftp, etc. r_env_vars Environment variables to set when calling R dr_github Diagnose potential GitHub issues devtools Package development tools for R. git_checks Git checks. reexports Objects exported from other packages install Install a local development package. check_rhub Run CRAN checks for package on R-hub uninstall Uninstall a local development package. wd Set working directory. spell_check Spell checking check_win Build windows binary package. github_pat Retrieve GitHub personal access token. has_tests Was devtools installed with tests? test Execute test_that tests in a package. submit_cran Submit a package to CRAN. run_examples Run all examples in a package. show_news Show package news install_deps Install package dependencies if needed. save_all Save all documents in an active IDE session. source_gist Run a script on gist build_readme Build a Rmarkdown README for a package check_failures Parses R CMD check log file for ERRORs, WARNINGs and NOTEs build Build package as.package Coerce input to a package. check Build and check a package, cleaning up automatically on success. build_vignettes Build package vignettes. check_man Check documentation, as R CMD check does. bash Open bash shell in package directory. No Results!