plot.ddsurvcurve

Create and plot survival curves

The function creates a predicted survival curve for a new observation using a estimated ddhazard model from ddhazard. The predicted curve is based on the predicted mean path of the state vector. Thus, the survival curve will not be a "mean" curve due to the non-linear relation between the probability of an event and the state vector.

Usage
# S3 method for ddsurvcurve
plot(x, y, xlab = "Time", ylab = "Survival",
  ylim, xaxs = "i", yaxs = "i", ...)

# S3 method for ddsurvcurve lines(x, col = "Black", lty = 1, lwd = par()$lwd, ...)

ddsurvcurve(object, new_data, tstart = "", tstop = "")

Arguments
x

a ddsurvcurve object.

y

not used.

xlab

xlab passed to plot.

ylab

ylab passed to plot.

ylim

ylim passed to plot.

xaxs

xaxs passed to plot.

yaxs

yaxs passed to plot.

...

not used.

col

col passed to lines.

lty

lty passed to lines.

lwd

lwd passed to lines.

object

a ddhazard object.

new_data

a data.frame with the new data for the observation who the survival curve should be for. It can have more rows if tstart and tstop is supplied. The rows need to be consecutive and non-overlapping time intervals.

tstart

name of the start time column in new_data. It must be on the same time scale as the tstart used in the Surv(tstart, tstop, event) in the formula passed to ddhazard.

tstop

same as tstart for the stop argument.

Value

ddsurvcurve returns an object of class ddsurvcurve. It elements are the predicted discrete survival curve, time points for the survival curve, point of the first time period, the call, the discrete probabilities of an event in each interval conditional on survival up to that point, and the name of the distribution family. It should be seen as a plug-in estimate.

Methods (by generic)

  • plot: method for plotting survival curve.

  • lines: Method for adding survival curve to a plot.

plot.ddsurvcurve

Returns the same as lines.ddsurvcurve.

lines.ddsurvcurve

Either returns the objects used in the call to segments for discrete time hazard models, or the time points and survival function used to draw the survival curve.

See Also

ddhazard, and predict.ddhazard.

Aliases
  • plot.ddsurvcurve
  • lines.ddsurvcurve
  • ddsurvcurve
Examples
# NOT RUN {
#####
# example with continuous time model
# setup data set. See `vignette("timedep", "survival")`
library(dynamichazard)
temp <- subset(pbc, id <= 312, select=c(id:sex, stage))
pbc2 <- tmerge(temp, temp, id=id, death = event(time, status))
pbc2 <- tmerge(pbc2, pbcseq, id = id, bili = tdc(day, bili))

# fit model
f1 <- ddhazard(
  Surv(tstart, tstop, death == 2) ~ ddFixed(log(bili)), pbc2, id = pbc2$id,
  max_T = 3600, Q_0 = 1, Q = 1e-2, by = 100, model = "exponential",
  control = ddhazard_control(method = "EKF", eps = 1e-4, n_max = 1000,
                             fixed_terms_method = "M_step"))

# predict with default which is all covariates set to zero
ddcurve <- ddsurvcurve(f1)
par(mar = c(4.5, 4, .5, .5))
plot(ddcurve, col = "DarkBlue", lwd = 2)

# compare with cox model
f2 <- coxph(Surv(tstart, tstop, death == 2) ~ log(bili), data = pbc2)
nw <- data.frame(bili = 1, tstart = 0, tstop = 3000)
lines(survfit(f2, newdata = nw))

# same as above but with bili = 3
nw <- data.frame(bili = 3)
lines(ddsurvcurve(f1, new_data = nw), col = "DarkBlue")
lines(survfit(f2, newdata = nw))

# change to time-varying slope
f3 <- ddhazard(
  Surv(tstart, tstop, death == 2) ~ log(bili), pbc2, id = pbc2$id,
  max_T = 3600, Q_0 = diag(1, 2), Q = diag(1e-2, 2), by = 100, model = "exponential",
  control = ddhazard_control(method = "EKF", eps = 1e-4, n_max = 1000))

# example with time-varying coefficient
nw <- data.frame(
  bili = c(2.1, 1.9, 3.3, 3.9, 3.8, 3.6, 4, 4.9, 4.2, 5.7, 10.2),
  tstart = c(0L, 225L, 407L, 750L, 1122L, 1479L, 1849L, 2193L, 2564L, 2913L,
             3284L),
  tstop = c(225L, 407L, 750L, 1122L, 1479L, 1849L, 2193L, 2564L, 2913L,
            3284L, 3600L))
ddcurve <- ddsurvcurve(f3, new_data = nw, tstart = "tstart", tstop = "tstop")
lines(ddcurve, "darkorange", lwd = 2)

# can condition on survival up to some time
ddcurve <- ddsurvcurve(f3, new_data = nw[-(1:5), ], tstart = "tstart",
                       tstop = "tstop")
lines(ddcurve, lty = 2, lwd = 2)

#####
# example with discrete time model
# head-and-neck cancer study data. See Efron, B. (1988) doi:10.2307/2288857
is_censored <- c(
  6, 27, 34, 36, 42, 46, 48:51, 51 + c(15, 30:28, 33, 35:37, 39, 40, 42:45))
head_neck_cancer <- data.frame(
  id = 1:96,
  stop = c(
    1, 2, 2, rep(3, 6), 4, 4, rep(5, 8),
    rep(6, 7), 7, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 14, 14, 14, 15, 18, 18, 20,
    20, 37, 37, 38, 41, 45, 47, 47,
    2, 2, 3, rep(4, 4), rep(5, 5), rep(6, 5),
    7, 7, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 18, 18, 21,
    21, 24, 25, 27, 36, 41, 44, 52, 54, 59, 59, 63, 67, 71, 76),
  event = !(1:96 %in% is_censored),
  group = factor(c(rep(1, 45 + 6), rep(2, 45))))

# fit model
h1 <- ddhazard(
  Surv(stop, event) ~ group, head_neck_cancer, by = 1, max_T = 45,
  Q_0 = diag(2^2, 2), Q = diag(.01^2, 2), control = ddhazard_control(
    method = "GMA", eps = 1e-4, n_max = 200))

# plot predicted survival curve. Notice the steps since the model is discrete
nw <- data.frame(group = factor(1, levels = 1:2), tstart = 0, tstop = 30)
ddcurve <- ddsurvcurve(h1, new_data = nw, tstart = "tstart",
                       tstop = "tstop")
plot(ddcurve, col = "Darkblue")

nw$group <- factor(2, levels = 1:2)
ddcurve <- ddsurvcurve(h1, new_data = nw, tstart = "tstart",
                       tstop = "tstop")
lines(ddcurve, col = "DarkOrange")

# compare with KM
lines(survfit(Surv(stop, event) ~ 1, head_neck_cancer, subset = group == 1),
      col = "DarkBlue")
lines(survfit(Surv(stop, event) ~ 1, head_neck_cancer, subset = group == 2),
      col = "DarkOrange")

# }
Documentation reproduced from package dynamichazard, version 0.6.5, License: GPL-2

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