eeptools v1.2.2

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Convenience Functions for Education Data

Collection of convenience functions to make working with administrative records easier and more consistent. Includes functions to clean strings, and identify cut points. Also includes three example data sets of administrative education records for learning how to process records with errors.

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Introduction

eeptools is an R package that seeks to make it easier for analysts at state and local education agencies to analyze and visualize their data on student, school, and district performance. By putting simple wrappers around a number of R functions, eeptools strives to make many common tasks simpler and less prone to error specific to analysis of education data.

Datasets

eeptools provides three new datasets of interest to education researchers. These datasets are also used in the R Bootcamp for Education Analysts

library(eeptools)
#> Loading required package: ggplot2
data("stuatt")
head(stuatt)
#>   sid school_year male race_ethnicity birth_date
#> 1   1        2004    1              B      10869
#> 2   1        2005    1              H      10869
#> 3   1        2006    1              H      10869
#> 4   1        2007    1              H      10869
#> 5   2        2006    0              W      11948
#> 6   2        2007    0              B      11948
#>   first_9th_school_year_reported hs_diploma      hs_diploma_type
#> 1                           2004          0                     
#> 2                           2004          0                     
#> 3                           2004          0                     
#> 4                           2004          0                     
#> 5                             NA          1     Standard Diploma
#> 6                             NA          1 College Prep Diploma
#>   hs_diploma_date
#> 1                
#> 2                
#> 3                
#> 4                
#> 5        6/5/2008
#> 6       5/24/2009

The stuatt, student attributes, dataset is provided from the Strategic Data Project Toolkit for Effective Data Use. This dataset is useful for learning how to clean data in R and how to aggregate and summarize individual unit-record data into group-level data.

data(stulevel)
head(stulevel)
#>     X school  stuid grade schid dist white black hisp indian asian econ
#> 1  44      1 149995     3   495  105     0     1    0      0     0    0
#> 2  53      1  13495     3   495   45     0     1    0      0     0    1
#> 3 116      1 106495     3   495   45     0     1    0      0     0    1
#> 4 244      1  45205     3   205   15     0     1    0      0     0    1
#> 5 274      1 142705     3   205   75     0     1    0      0     0    1
#> 6 276      1  14995     3   495  105     0     1    0      0     0    1
#>   female ell disab sch_fay dist_fay luck   ability    measerr      teachq
#> 1      0   0     0       0        0    0  87.85405  11.133264 39.09024712
#> 2      0   0     0       0        0    1  97.78756   6.822394  0.09848192
#> 3      0   0     0       0        0    0 104.49303  -7.856159 39.53885270
#> 4      0   0     0       0        0    1 111.67151 -17.574152 24.11612277
#> 5      0   0     0       0        0    0  81.92539  52.983338 56.68061304
#> 6      0   0     0       0        0    0 101.92904  22.604145 71.62196655
#>   year attday schoolscore district schoolhigh schoolavg schoollow   readSS
#> 1 2000    180    29.22427        3          0         1         0 357.2865
#> 2 2000    180    55.96326        3          0         1         0 263.9046
#> 3 2000    160    55.96326        3          0         1         0 369.6722
#> 4 2000    168    55.96326        3          0         1         0 346.5957
#> 5 2000    156    55.96326        3          0         1         0 373.1254
#> 6 2000    157    55.96326        3          0         1         0 436.7607
#>     mathSS     proflvl race
#> 1 387.2803       basic    B
#> 2 302.5724 below basic    B
#> 3 365.4614       basic    B
#> 4 344.4964       basic    B
#> 5 441.1581       basic    B
#> 6 463.4033  proficient    B

The stulevel dataset is a simulated student-level longitudinal record. It contains student and school level attributes and is useful for practicing evaluating longitudinal analyses of student unit-record data.

data("midsch")
head(midsch)
#>   district_id school_id subject grade n1   ss1 n2   ss2 predicted
#> 1          14       130    math     4 44 433.1 40 463.0  468.7446
#> 2          70        20    math     4 18 443.0 20 477.2  476.4765
#> 3         112        80    math     4 86 445.4 94 472.6  478.3509
#> 4         119        50    math     4 95 427.1 94 460.7  464.0586
#> 5         147        60    math     4 27 424.2 27 458.7  461.7937
#> 6         147       125    math     4 17 423.5 26 463.1  461.2470
#>    residuals     resid_z     resid_t       cooks test_year     tprob
#> 1 -5.7445937 -0.59189645 -0.59170988 0.000171271      2007 0.2787298
#> 2  0.7235053  0.07455731  0.07452135 0.000003510      2007 0.4706873
#> 3 -5.7508949 -0.59266905 -0.59248250 0.000244921      2007 0.2774827
#> 4 -3.3585931 -0.34605798 -0.34591020 0.000059900      2007 0.3650957
#> 5 -3.0936928 -0.31877383 -0.31863490 0.000054100      2007 0.3762745
#> 6  1.8530072  0.19093568  0.19084643 0.000019800      2007 0.4250936
#>   flagged_t95
#> 1           0
#> 2           0
#> 3           0
#> 4           0
#> 5           0
#> 6           0

The midsch dataset contains an analysis on abnormality in school average assessment scores. It contains observed and predicted values of aggregated test scores at the school level for a large midwestern state.

Administrative Data Functions

For analysts using unit-record data of some type, there are several calc functions which automate common tasks including calculating ages (age_calc), grade retention (retained_calc), and student mobility (moves_calc).

age_calc(dob = as.Date('1995-01-15'), enddate = as.Date('2003-02-16'), 
         units = "years")
#> [1] 8.087671
age_calc(dob = as.Date('1995-01-15'), enddate = as.Date('2003-02-16'), 
         units = "months")
#> [1] 97.03571
age_calc(dob = as.Date('1995-01-15'), enddate = as.Date('2003-02-16'), 
         units = "days")
#> Time difference of 2954 days

age_calc also now properly accounts for leap years and leap seconds by default.

retained_calc takes a vector of student identifiers and a vector of grades and checks whether or not the student was retained in the grade level specified by the user. It returns a data.frame of all students who could have been retained and a yes or no indicator of whether they were retained.

x <- data.frame(sid = c(101, 101, 102, 103, 103, 103, 104, 105, 105, 106, 106),
                 grade = c(9, 10, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10, 8, 9, 7, 7))
retained_calc(df = x, sid = "sid", grade = "grade", grade_val = 9)
#>   sid retained
#> 1 101        N
#> 2 102        N
#> 3 103        Y
#> 4 105        N

retained_calc is intended to be used after you have processed your data as it does not take into account time or sequence other than the order in which the data is passed to it.

moves_calc is intended to identify based on enrollment dates whether a student experienced a school move within a school year.

df <- data.frame(sid = c(rep(1,3), rep(2,4), 3, rep(4,2)),
                   schid = c(1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1),
                   enroll_date = as.Date(c('2004-08-26',
                   '2004-10-01', '2005-05-01', '2004-09-01',
                   '2004-11-03', '2005-01-11', '2005-04-02',
                   '2004-09-26', '2004-09-01','2005-02-02'), format='%Y-%m-%d'),
                   exit_date = as.Date(c('2004-08-26', '2005-04-10',
                    '2005-06-15', '2004-11-02', '2005-01-10',
                    '2005-03-01', '2005-06-15', '2005-05-30',
                    NA, '2005-06-15'), format='%Y-%m-%d'))

moves <- moves_calc(df, sid = "sid", schid = "schid", enroll_date = "enroll_date", 
                    exit_date = "exit_date")
moves
#>   sid moves
#> 1   1     4
#> 2   2     4
#> 3   3     2
#> 4   4    NA

Manipulate Data

Another set of key functions in the package are to make basic data manipulation easier. One thing users of other statistical packaegs may miss when using R is a convenient function for determining the mode of a vector. The statamode function is designed to do just that. statamode works with numeric, character, and factor data types. It also includes various options for how to deal with a tie demonstrated below.

vecA <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
statamode(vecA, method = "stata")
#> [1] "."
vecB <- c(1, 1, 1, 3:10)
statamode(vecB, method = "last")
#> [1] 1
vecC <- c(1, 1, 1, NA, NA, 5:10)
statamode(vecC, method = "last")
#> [1] 1
vecA <- c(LETTERS[1:10]); vecA <- factor(vecA)
statamode(vecA, method = "last")
#> [1] J
#> Levels: J
vecB <- c("A", "A", "A", LETTERS[3:10]); vecB <- factor(vecB)
statamode(vecB, method = "last")
#> [1] A
#> Levels: A
vecA <- c(LETTERS[1:10])
statamode(vecA, method = "sample")
#> [1] "J"
vecB <- c("A", "A", "A", LETTERS[3:10])
statamode(vecB, method = "stata")
#> [1] "A"
vecC <- c("A", "A", "A", NA, NA, LETTERS[5:10])
statamode(vecC, method = "stata")
#> [1] "A"

There are a number of functions to save you keystrokes like defac for converting a factor to a character, makenum for turning a factor variable into a numeric variable, max_mis for taking the maximum of a vector of numerics and ignoring any NAs (useful for inclusion in do.call or apply constructions). remove_char allows you to quickly gsub out a specific character from a string vector such as an * or .... decomma is a somewhat specialized version of this for processing data where numerics are written with commas. nth_max allows you to identify the 2nd, 3rd, etc. maximum value in a vector.

Regression Models

eeptools includes ways to simplify the use of regression analyses tools recommended by Gelman and Hill 2006 through the gelmansim function, which itself is a wrapper for the arm::sim() function.

require(MASS)
#> Loading required package: MASS
#Examples of "sim" 
set.seed (1)
J <- 15
n <- J*(J+1)/2
group <- rep (1:J, 1:J)
mu.a <- 5
sigma.a <- 2
a <- rnorm (J, mu.a, sigma.a)
b <- -3
x <- rnorm (n, 2, 1)
sigma.y <- 6
y <- rnorm (n, a[group] + b*x, sigma.y)
u <- runif (J, 0, 3)
dat <- cbind (y, x, group)
# Linear regression 
dat <- as.data.frame(dat)
dat$group <- factor(dat$group)
M3 <- glm (y ~ x + group, data=dat)
cases <- expand.grid(x = seq(-2, 2, by=0.1), 
                     group=seq(1, 14, by=2))
cases$group <- factor(cases$group)
sim.results <- gelmansim(mod = M3, newdata = cases, n.sims=200, na.omit=TRUE)
head(sim.results)
#>      x group       yhats   yhatMin  yhatMax
#> 1 -2.0     1  1.49216152 -5.317070 8.826878
#> 2 -1.9     1  1.05530376 -6.141328 9.084779
#> 3 -1.8     1  1.50069226 -5.341525 8.256558
#> 4 -1.7     1 -0.04991641 -7.027672 6.982415
#> 5 -1.6     1  0.50262366 -6.315685 7.944253
#> 6 -1.5     1 -0.32213552 -7.343319 6.737021

There is also a ggplot2 version of plot.lm included:

data(mpg)
mymod <- lm(cty~displ + cyl + drv, data=mpg)
autoplot(mymod)

Finally, there is a convenient method for creating labeled mosaic plots.

sampDat <- data.frame(cbind(x=seq(1,3,by=1), y=sample(LETTERS[6:8], 60, 
                                                        replace=TRUE)),
                        fac=sample(LETTERS[1:4], 60, replace=TRUE))
varnames<-c('Quality','Grade')
crosstabplot(sampDat, "y", "fac", varnames = varnames,  label = TRUE, 
             title = "Crosstab Plot", shade = FALSE)

Helping Out

Review the Contributor Guide for specific directions and tips on how to get involved.

eeptools is intended to be a useful project for the education analytics community. Contributions are welcomed. Please note that this project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct. By participating in this project you agree to abide by its terms.

Functions in eeptools

Name Description
isid A function to check if a set of variables form a unique ID in a dataframe.
stulevel A synthetic data set of K-12 student attributes.
ggmapmerge A depcrecated method for fortifying SpatialPolygonsDataFrames for plotting
statamode A function to mimic the mode function in Stata.
theme_dpi a deprecated ggplot2 theme developed for PDF and PNG for use at the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
stuatt Student Attributes from the Strategic Data Project Toolkit
theme_dpi_mapPNG an deprecated ggplot2 theme developed for PNG or JPG maps
thresh A function to return the maximum percentage of the cumulative sum represented by a subset of the vector
cleanTex Remove Unwanted LaTeX files after building document
crosstabplot Draw a visual crosstab (mosaic plot) with shading for correlations and labels in each cell.
max_mis A function to safely take the maximum of a vector that could include only NAs.
midsch A dataframe of aggregate test scores for schools in a Midwest state.
profpoly Creates a proficiency polygon in ggplot2 for showing assessment categories
profpoly.data Creates a data frame suitable for building custom polygon layers in ggplot2 objects
crosstabs Build a list of crosstabulations from a dataset
cutoff A function to calculate thresholds of cumulative sums in a vector.
lag_data Create a lag
leading_zero Function to add leading zeroes to maintain fixed width.
remove_char A function to replace an arbitrary character like a "*" in redacted data with an NA in R
retained_calc Function to calculate whether a student has repeated a grade.
age_calc Function to calculate age from date of birth.
autoplot.lm A function to replicate the basic plot function for linear models in ggplot2
mapmerge A depcrecated method for converting polygons to dataframes Combine an S4 polygon object with a dataframe
makenum a function to convert numeric factors into numeric class objects
theme_dpi_map a deprecated ggplot2 theme developed for PDF or SVG maps
theme_dpi_map2 an alternate deprecated ggplot2 theme developed for PDF or SVG maps
nth_max Find the nth maximum value
moves_calc Function to calculate the number of times a student has changed schools.
eeptools Evaluation of educational policy tools
gelmansim Generate prediction intervals for model functions
decomma Remove commas from numeric fields and return them as numerics
defac Convert a factor to a character string safely
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Details

Type Package
License GPL-3
LazyData true
Encoding UTF-8
VignetteBuilder knitr
RoxygenNote 6.1.1
URL https://github.com/jknowles/eeptools
BugReports https://github.com/jknowles/eeptools/issues
NeedsCompilation no
Packaged 2019-03-18 23:41:43 UTC; Jared
Repository CRAN
Date/Publication 2019-03-19 00:00:02 UTC

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