```
# examples from SPSS manual
# RECODE V1 TO V3 (0=1) (1=0) (2, 3=-1) (9=9) (ELSE=SYSMIS)
v1 = c(0, 1, 2, 3, 9, 10)
recode(v1) = c(0 ~ 1, 1 ~ 0, 2:3 ~ -1, 9 ~ 9, TRUE ~ NA)
v1
# RECODE QVAR(1 THRU 5=1)(6 THRU 10=2)(11 THRU HI=3)(ELSE=0).
qvar = c(1:20, 97, NA, NA)
recode(qvar, 1 %thru% 5 ~ 1, 6 %thru% 10 ~ 2, 11 %thru% hi ~ 3, TRUE ~ 0)
# the same result
recode(qvar, 1 %thru% 5 ~ 1, 6 %thru% 10 ~ 2, ge(11) ~ 3, TRUE ~ 0)
# RECODE STRNGVAR ('A', 'B', 'C'='A')('D', 'E', 'F'='B')(ELSE=' ').
strngvar = LETTERS
recode(strngvar, c('A', 'B', 'C') ~ 'A', c('D', 'E', 'F') ~ 'B', TRUE ~ ' ')
# recode in place. Note that we recode only first six letters
recode(strngvar) = c(c('A', 'B', 'C') ~ 'A', c('D', 'E', 'F') ~ 'B')
strngvar
# RECODE AGE (MISSING=9) (18 THRU HI=1) (0 THRU 18=0) INTO VOTER.
age = c(NA, 2:40, NA)
voter = recode(age, NA ~ 9, 18 %thru% hi ~ 1, 0 %thru% 18 ~ 0)
voter
# the same result with '%into%'
recode(age, NA ~ 9, 18 %thru% hi ~ 1, 0 %thru% 18 ~ 0) %into% voter2
voter2
# recode with adding labels
voter = recode(age, "Refuse to answer" = NA ~ 9,
"Vote" = 18 %thru% hi ~ 1,
"Don't vote" = 0 %thru% 18 ~ 0)
voter
# recoding with labels
ol = c(1:7, 99)
var_lab(ol) = "Liking"
val_lab(ol) = num_lab("
1 Disgusting
2 Very Poor
3 Poor
4 So-so
5 Good
6 Very good
7 Excellent
99 Hard to say
")
recode(ol, 1:3 ~ 1, 5:7 ~ 7, TRUE ~ copy, with_labels = TRUE)
# 'rec' is a shortcut for recoding with labels. Same result:
rec(ol, 1:3 ~ 1, 5:7 ~ 7, TRUE ~ copy)
# another method of combining labels
recode(ol, 1:3 ~ 1, 5:7 ~ 7, TRUE ~ copy, with_labels = TRUE, new_label = "range")
# example with from/to notation
# RECODE QVAR(1 THRU 5=1)(6 THRU 10=2)(11 THRU HI=3)(ELSE=0).
list_from = list(1 %thru% 5, 6 %thru% 10, ge(11), TRUE)
list_to = list(1, 2, 3, 0)
recode(qvar, from_to(list_from, list_to))
list_from = list(NA, 18 %thru% hi, 0 %thru% 18)
list_to = list("Refuse to answer" = 9, "Vote" = 1, "Don't vote" = 0)
voter = recode(age, from_to(list_from, list_to))
voter
# 'ifs' examples
a = 1:5
b = 5:1
ifs(b>3 ~ 1) # c(1, 1, NA, NA, NA)
ifs(b>3 ~ 1, TRUE ~ 3) # c(1, 1, 3, 3, 3)
ifs(b>3 ~ 1, a>4 ~ 7, TRUE ~ 3) # c(1, 1, 3, 3, 7)
ifs(b>3 ~ a, TRUE ~ 42) # c(1, 2, 42, 42, 42)
# advanced usage
#' # multiple assignment with '%into%'
set.seed(123)
x1 = runif(30)
x2 = runif(30)
x3 = runif(30)
# note nessesary brackets around RHS of '%into%'
recode(x1 %to% x3, gt(0.5) ~ 1, other ~ 0) %into% (x_rec_1 %to% x_rec_3)
fre(x_rec_1)
# the same operation with characters expansion
i = 1:3
recode(x1 %to% x3, gt(0.5) ~ 1, other ~ 0) %into% text_expand('x_rec2_{i}')
fre(x_rec2_1)
# factor recoding
a = factor(letters[1:4])
recode(a, "a" ~ "z", TRUE ~ copy) # we get factor
# example with function in RHS
data(iris)
new_iris = recode(iris, is.numeric ~ scale, other ~ copy)
str(new_iris)
set.seed(123)
a = rnorm(20)
# if a<(-0.5) we change it to absolute value of a (abs function)
recode(a, lt(-0.5) ~ abs, other ~ copy)
# the same example with logical criteria
recode(a, when(a<(-.5)) ~ abs, other ~ copy)
```

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