factoextra (version 1.0.7)

fviz_mca: Visualize Multiple Correspondence Analysis


Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) is an extension of simple CA to analyse a data table containing more than two categorical variables. fviz_mca() provides ggplot2-based elegant visualization of MCA outputs from the R functions: MCA [in FactoMineR], acm [in ade4], and expOutput/epMCA [in ExPosition]. Read more: Multiple Correspondence Analysis Essentials.

  • fviz_mca_ind(): Graph of individuals

  • fviz_mca_var(): Graph of variables

  • fviz_mca_biplot(): Biplot of individuals and variables

  • fviz_mca(): An alias of fviz_mca_biplot()


  axes = c(1, 2),
  geom = c("point", "text"),
  geom.ind = geom,
  repel = FALSE,
  habillage = "none",
  palette = NULL,
  addEllipses = FALSE,
  col.ind = "blue",
  col.ind.sup = "darkblue",
  alpha.ind = 1,
  shape.ind = 19,
  map = "symmetric",
  select.ind = list(name = NULL, cos2 = NULL, contrib = NULL),

fviz_mca_var( X, choice = c("var.cat", "mca.cor", "var", "quanti.sup"), axes = c(1, 2), geom = c("point", "text"), geom.var = geom, repel = FALSE, col.var = "red", alpha.var = 1, shape.var = 17, col.quanti.sup = "blue", col.quali.sup = "darkgreen", map = "symmetric", select.var = list(name = NULL, cos2 = NULL, contrib = NULL), ... )

fviz_mca_biplot( X, axes = c(1, 2), geom = c("point", "text"), geom.ind = geom, geom.var = geom, repel = FALSE, label = "all", invisible = "none", habillage = "none", addEllipses = FALSE, palette = NULL, arrows = c(FALSE, FALSE), map = "symmetric", title = "MCA - Biplot", ... )

fviz_mca(X, ...)



an object of class MCA [FactoMineR], acm [ade4] and expOutput/epMCA [ExPosition].


a numeric vector of length 2 specifying the dimensions to be plotted.


a text specifying the geometry to be used for the graph. Allowed values are the combination of c("point", "arrow", "text"). Use "point" (to show only points); "text" to show only labels; c("point", "text") or c("arrow", "text") to show arrows and texts. Using c("arrow", "text") is sensible only for the graph of variables.

geom.ind, geom.var

as geom but for individuals and variables, respectively. Default is geom.ind = c("point", "text), geom.var = c("point", "text").


a boolean, whether to use ggrepel to avoid overplotting text labels or not.


an optional factor variable for coloring the observations by groups. Default value is "none". If X is an MCA object from FactoMineR package, habillage can also specify the index of the factor variable in the data.


the color palette to be used for coloring or filling by groups. Allowed values include "grey" for grey color palettes; brewer palettes e.g. "RdBu", "Blues", ...; or custom color palette e.g. c("blue", "red"); and scientific journal palettes from ggsci R package, e.g.: "npg", "aaas", "lancet", "jco", "ucscgb", "uchicago", "simpsons" and "rickandmorty". Can be also a numeric vector of length(groups); in this case a basic color palette is created using the function palette.


logical value. If TRUE, draws ellipses around the individuals when habillage != "none".

col.ind, col.var

color for individuals and variables, respectively. Can be a continuous variable or a factor variable. Possible values include also : "cos2", "contrib", "coord", "x" or "y". In this case, the colors for individuals/variables are automatically controlled by their qualities ("cos2"), contributions ("contrib"), coordinates (x^2 + y^2 , "coord"), x values("x") or y values("y"). To use automatic coloring (by cos2, contrib, ....), make sure that habillage ="none".


color for supplementary individuals

alpha.ind, alpha.var

controls the transparency of individual and variable colors, respectively. The value can variate from 0 (total transparency) to 1 (no transparency). Default value is 1. Possible values include also : "cos2", "contrib", "coord", "x" or "y". In this case, the transparency for individual/variable colors are automatically controlled by their qualities ("cos2"), contributions ("contrib"), coordinates (x^2 + y^2 , "coord"), x values("x") or y values("y"). To use this, make sure that habillage ="none".

shape.ind, shape.var

point shapes of individuals and variables.


character string specifying the map type. Allowed options include: "symmetric", "rowprincipal", "colprincipal", "symbiplot", "rowgab", "colgab", "rowgreen" and "colgreen". See details

select.ind, select.var

a selection of individuals/variables to be drawn. Allowed values are NULL or a list containing the arguments name, cos2 or contrib:

  • name is a character vector containing individuals/variables to be drawn

  • cos2 if cos2 is in [0, 1], ex: 0.6, then individuals/variables with a cos2 > 0.6 are drawn. if cos2 > 1, ex: 5, then the top 5 individuals/variables with the highest cos2 are drawn.

  • contrib if contrib > 1, ex: 5, then the top 5 individuals/variables with the highest contrib are drawn


Additional arguments.

  • in fviz_mca_ind(), fviz_mca_var() and fviz_mca_cor(): Additional arguments are passed to the functions fviz() and ggpubr::ggpar().

  • in fviz_mca_biplot() and fviz_mca(): Additional arguments are passed to fviz_mca_ind() and fviz_mca_var().


the graph to plot. Allowed values include: i) "var" and "mca.cor" for plotting the correlation between variables and principal dimensions; ii) "var.cat" for variable categories and iii) "quanti.sup" for the supplementary quantitative variables.

col.quanti.sup, col.quali.sup

a color for the quantitative/qualitative supplementary variables.


a text specifying the elements to be labelled. Default value is "all". Allowed values are "none" or the combination of c("ind", "ind.sup","var", "quali.sup", "quanti.sup"). "ind" can be used to label only active individuals. "ind.sup" is for supplementary individuals. "var" is for active variable categories. "quali.sup" is for supplementary qualitative variable categories. "quanti.sup" is for quantitative supplementary variables.


a text specifying the elements to be hidden on the plot. Default value is "none". Allowed values are the combination of c("ind", "ind.sup","var", "quali.sup", "quanti.sup").


Vector of two logicals specifying if the plot should contain points (FALSE, default) or arrows (TRUE). First value sets the rows and the second value sets the columns.


the title of the graph


a ggplot


The default plot of MCA is a "symmetric" plot in which both rows and columns are in principal coordinates. In this situation, it's not possible to interpret the distance between row points and column points. To overcome this problem, the simplest way is to make an asymmetric plot. The argument "map" can be used to change the plot type. For more explanation, read the details section of fviz_ca documentation.

See Also

get_mca, fviz_pca, fviz_ca, fviz_mfa, fviz_hmfa


Run this code
# Multiple Correspondence Analysis
# ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
# Install and load FactoMineR to compute MCA
# install.packages("FactoMineR")
poison.active <- poison[1:55, 5:15]
res.mca <- MCA(poison.active, graph=FALSE)

# Graph of individuals
# +++++++++++++++++++++

# Default Plot
# Color of individuals: col.ind = "steelblue"
fviz_mca_ind(res.mca, col.ind = "steelblue")

# 1. Control automatically the color of individuals 
   # using the "cos2" or the contributions "contrib"
   # cos2 = the quality of the individuals on the factor map
# 2. To keep only point or text use geom = "point" or geom = "text".
# 3. Change themes: http://www.sthda.com/english/wiki/ggplot2-themes

fviz_mca_ind(res.mca, col.ind = "cos2", repel = TRUE)

# }
# You can also control the transparency 
# of the color by the cos2
fviz_mca_ind(res.mca, alpha.ind="cos2") 
# }
# Color individuals by groups, add concentration ellipses
# Remove labels: label = "none".
grp <- as.factor(poison.active[, "Vomiting"])
p <- fviz_mca_ind(res.mca, label="none", habillage=grp,
       addEllipses=TRUE, ellipse.level=0.95)
# Change group colors using RColorBrewer color palettes
# Read more: http://www.sthda.com/english/wiki/ggplot2-colors
p + scale_color_brewer(palette="Dark2") +
# Change group colors manually
# Read more: http://www.sthda.com/english/wiki/ggplot2-colors
p + scale_color_manual(values=c("#999999", "#E69F00"))+
 scale_fill_manual(values=c("#999999", "#E69F00"))
# Select and visualize some individuals (ind) with select.ind argument.
 # - ind with cos2 >= 0.4: select.ind = list(cos2 = 0.4)
 # - Top 20 ind according to the cos2: select.ind = list(cos2 = 20)
 # - Top 20 contributing individuals: select.ind = list(contrib = 20)
 # - Select ind by names: select.ind = list(name = c("44", "38", "53",  "39") )
# Example: Select the top 40 according to the cos2
fviz_mca_ind(res.mca, select.ind = list(cos2 = 20))

# Graph of variable categories
# ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
# Default plot: use repel = TRUE to avoid overplotting
fviz_mca_var(res.mca, col.var = "#FC4E07")

# Control variable colors using their contributions
# use repel = TRUE to avoid overplotting
fviz_mca_var(res.mca, col.var = "contrib",
  gradient.cols = c("#00AFBB", "#E7B800", "#FC4E07"))
# Biplot
# ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
grp <- as.factor(poison.active[, "Vomiting"])
fviz_mca_biplot(res.mca, repel = TRUE, col.var = "#E7B800",
 habillage = grp, addEllipses = TRUE, ellipse.level = 0.95)
# }
# Keep only the labels for variable categories: 
fviz_mca_biplot(res.mca, label ="var")

# Keep only labels for individuals
fviz_mca_biplot(res.mca, label ="ind")

# Hide variable categories
fviz_mca_biplot(res.mca, invisible ="var")

# Hide individuals
fviz_mca_biplot(res.mca, invisible ="ind")

# Control automatically the color of individuals using the cos2
fviz_mca_biplot(res.mca, label ="var", col.ind="cos2")
# Change the color by groups, add ellipses
fviz_mca_biplot(res.mca, label="var", col.var ="blue",
   habillage=grp, addEllipses=TRUE, ellipse.level=0.95)
# Select the top 30 contributing individuals
# And the top 10 variables
               select.ind = list(contrib = 30),
               select.var = list(contrib = 10)) 
# }
# }

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