Returns forecasts and other information for univariate ARIMA models.
# S3 method for fracdiff forecast( object, h = 10, level = c(80, 95), fan = FALSE, lambda = object$lambda, biasadj = NULL, ... )
# S3 method for Arima forecast( object, h = ifelse(object$arma > 1, 2 * object$arma, 10), level = c(80, 95), fan = FALSE, xreg = NULL, lambda = object$lambda, bootstrap = FALSE, npaths = 5000, biasadj = NULL, ... )
# S3 method for ar forecast( object, h = 10, level = c(80, 95), fan = FALSE, lambda = NULL, bootstrap = FALSE, npaths = 5000, biasadj = FALSE, ... )
Number of periods for forecasting. If
xreg is used,
is ignored and the number of forecast periods is set to the number of rows
Confidence level for prediction intervals.
TRUE, level is set to
seq(51,99,by=3). This is
suitable for fan plots.
Box-Cox transformation parameter. If
then a transformation is automatically selected using
The transformation is ignored if NULL. Otherwise,
data transformed before model is estimated.
Use adjusted back-transformed mean for Box-Cox transformations. If transformed data is used to produce forecasts and fitted values, a regular back transformation will result in median forecasts. If biasadj is TRUE, an adjustment will be made to produce mean forecasts and fitted values.
Future values of an regression variables (for class
objects only). A numerical vector or matrix of external regressors; it should not be a data frame.
TRUE, then prediction intervals computed using
simulation with resampled errors.
Number of sample paths used in computing simulated prediction
An object of class "
summary is used to obtain and print a summary of the
results, while the function
plot produces a plot of the forecasts and
The generic accessor functions
extract useful features of the value returned by
An object of class "
forecast" is a list containing at least the
A list containing information about the fitted model
The name of the forecasting method as a character string
Point forecasts as a time series
Lower limits for prediction intervals
Upper limits for prediction intervals
The confidence values associated with the prediction intervals
The original time series
object itself or the time series used to create the model
Residuals from the fitted model. That is x minus fitted values.
Fitted values (one-step forecasts)
ar objects, the function calls
constructs an object of class "
forecast" from the results. For
fracdiff objects, the calculations are all done within
forecast.fracdiff using the equations given by Peiris and
Peiris, M. & Perera, B. (1988), On prediction with fractionally differenced ARIMA models, Journal of Time Series Analysis, 9(3), 215-220.