# accuracy

##### Accuracy measures for a forecast model

Returns range of summary measures of the forecast accuracy. If `x`

is
provided, the function measures test set forecast accuracy
based on `x-f`

. If `x`

is not provided, the function only produces
training set accuracy measures of the forecasts based on
`f["x"]-fitted(f)`

. All measures are defined and discussed in Hyndman
and Koehler (2006).

- Keywords
- ts

##### Usage

`accuracy(f, ...)`# S3 method for default
accuracy(f, x, test = NULL, d = NULL, D = NULL,
...)

##### Arguments

- f
An object of class “

`forecast`

”, or a numerical vector containing forecasts. It will also work with`Arima`

,`ets`

and`lm`

objects if`x`

is omitted -- in which case training set accuracy measures are returned.- ...
Additional arguments depending on the specific method.

- x
An optional numerical vector containing actual values of the same length as object, or a time series overlapping with the times of

`f`

.- test
Indicator of which elements of

`x`

and`f`

to test. If`test`

is`NULL`

, all elements are used. Otherwise test is a numeric vector containing the indices of the elements to use in the test.- d
An integer indicating the number of lag-1 differences to be used for the denominator in MASE calculation. Default value is 1 for non-seasonal series and 0 for seasonal series.

- D
An integer indicating the number of seasonal differences to be used for the denominator in MASE calculation. Default value is 0 for non-seasonal series and 1 for seasonal series.

##### Details

The measures calculated are:

ME: Mean Error

RMSE: Root Mean Squared Error

MAE: Mean Absolute Error

MPE: Mean Percentage Error

MAPE: Mean Absolute Percentage Error

MASE: Mean Absolute Scaled Error

ACF1: Autocorrelation of errors at lag 1.

By default, the MASE calculation is scaled using MAE of training set naive
forecasts for non-seasonal time series, training set seasonal naive forecasts
for seasonal time series and training set mean forecasts for non-time series data.
If `f`

is a numerical vector rather than a `forecast`

object, the MASE
will not be returned as the training data will not be available.

See Hyndman and Koehler (2006) and Hyndman and Athanasopoulos (2014, Section 2.5) for further details.

##### Value

Matrix giving forecast accuracy measures.

##### References

Hyndman, R.J. and Koehler, A.B. (2006) "Another look at measures
of forecast accuracy". *International Journal of Forecasting*,
**22**(4), 679-688. Hyndman, R.J. and Athanasopoulos, G. (2018)
"Forecasting: principles and practice", 2nd ed., OTexts, Melbourne, Australia.
Section 3.4 "Evaluating forecast accuracy".
https://otexts.org/fpp2/accuracy.html.

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
fit1 <- rwf(EuStockMarkets[1:200,1],h=100)
fit2 <- meanf(EuStockMarkets[1:200,1],h=100)
accuracy(fit1)
accuracy(fit2)
accuracy(fit1,EuStockMarkets[201:300,1])
accuracy(fit2,EuStockMarkets[201:300,1])
plot(fit1)
lines(EuStockMarkets[1:300,1])
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package forecast, version 8.9, License: GPL-3*