# upperTriangle

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##### Extract or replace the upper/lower triangular portion of a matrix

Extract or replace the upper/lower triangular portion of a matrix

Keywords
array
##### Usage
upperTriangle(x, diag=FALSE, byrow=FALSE)
upperTriangle(x, diag=FALSE, byrow=FALSE) <- value
lowerTriangle(x, diag=FALSE, byrow=FALSE)
lowerTriangle(x, diag=FALSE, byrow=FALSE) <- value
##### Arguments
x

Matrix

diag

Logical. If TRUE, include the matrix diagonal.

byrow

Logical. If FALSE, return/replace elements in column-wise order. If TRUE, return/replace elements in row-wise order.

value

Either a single value or a vector of length equal to that of the current upper/lower triangular. Should be of a mode which can be coerced to that of x.

##### Value

upperTriangle(x) and lowerTriangle(x) return the upper or lower triangle of matrix x, respectively. The assignment forms replace the upper or lower triangular area of the matrix with the provided value(s).

##### Note

By default, the elements are returned/replaced in R's default column-wise order. Thus

  lowerTriangle(x) <- upperTriangle(x)

will not yield a symmetric matrix. Instead use:

  lowerTriangle(x) <- upperTriangle(x, byrow=TRUE)

or equivalently:

  lowerTriangle(x, byrow=TRUE) <- upperTriangle(x)

diag, lower.tri, upper.tri

##### Aliases
• upperTriangle
• upperTriangle<-
• lowerTriangle
• lowerTriangle<-
##### Examples
  x <- matrix( 1:25, nrow=5, ncol=5)
x
upperTriangle(x)
upperTriangle(x, diag=TRUE)
upperTriangle(x, diag=TRUE, byrow=TRUE)

lowerTriangle(x)
lowerTriangle(x, diag=TRUE)
lowerTriangle(x, diag=TRUE, byrow=TRUE)

upperTriangle(x) <- NA
x

upperTriangle(x, diag=TRUE) <- 1:15
x

lowerTriangle(x) <- NA
x

lowerTriangle(x, diag=TRUE) <- 1:15
x

## Copy lower triangle into upper triangle to make
## the matrix (diagonally) symmetric
x <- matrix(LETTERS[1:25], nrow=5, ncol=5, byrow=TRUE)
x
lowerTriangle(x) = upperTriangle(x, byrow=TRUE)
x

Documentation reproduced from package gdata, version 2.18.0, License: GPL-2

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