geotech (version 1.0)

# Plasticity: Plasticity Functions

## Description

These functions compute diferent aspects related to plasticity:
• `LL` calculates and plots a soil's liquid limit (LL) using the flow curve from measured lab data.
• `PI` calculates plasticity index.
• `LI` calculates liquidity index.
• `A.line` calculates the PI corresponding to the A-line on Casagrande's plasticity chart.
• `plasticity.plot` plots a soil's plasticity parameters on Casagrande's plasticity chart.

## Usage

```LL(N, w, draw)
PI(LL, PL)
LI(w, LL, PL)
A.line(LL)
plasticity.plot(LL, PL = NA, PI = NA)```

## Arguments

LL
Liquid Limit (percent)
PL
Plastic Limit (percent)
PI
Plasticity index (percent)
w
moisture content (percent) [see details below]
N
vector of number of blows obtained from the liquid limit test (for LL function)
draw
logical variable: TRUE if plot of flow curve is desired, and FALSE to suppress the creation of the plot (for LL function)

## Value

• `LL` outputs a soil's liquid limit and, optionally, a plot of the soil's flow curve.
• `PI` outputs a two-element list composed of:
1. PI = Plasticity index (percent)
2. descr = qualitative description of soil based on Sowers (1979)
• `LI` outputs a two-element list composed of:
1. LI = Liquidity index (percent)
2. descr = qualitative description of soil based on Sowers (1979)
• `A.line` outputs the plasticity index corresponding to the A-line on Casagrande's plasticity chart
• `plasticity.plot` is used to make a plot of a soil's plasticity parameters (LL and PI) on Casagrande's plasticity chart. No numerical values are output from this function.

## Details

• Note that all inputs should be entered as percents, not decimals (e.g. w = 23, not w = 0.23)
• The argument w (water content) should be a single value for the LI function that represents the soil's in-situ moisture content; and w should be a vector of values for the LL function that represent the measured water contents, each with N blows.
• For plot.plasticity and A.line, either PL or PI must be specified in addition to LL.

## References

Casagrande, A.M. (1948). "Classification and Identification of Soils", ASCE Transactions, Vol. 113, pp. 901-991.

Sowers, G.F. (1979). "Introductory Soil Mechanics and Foundations: Geotechnical Engineering", 4th edition, Macmillan, New York.

## See Also

`USCS`, `AASHTO`, `grainSize`

## Examples

```
## Example code for Plasticity Index
PI(LL = 80, PL = 30)

## Example code for Liquidity Index
LI(w = 55, PL = 20, LL = 50)

## Example code for plasticity plot
plasticity.plot(LL = 40, PL = 20)

## Example code for liquid limit analysis
LL(N = c(72, 37, 14), w = c(7, 15, 21), draw = TRUE)
```