ggplot2 2.2.0

by Hadley Wickham
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Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics

A system for 'declaratively' creating graphics, based on "The Grammar of Graphics". You provide the data, tell 'ggplot2' how to map variables to aesthetics, what graphical primitives to use, and it takes care of the details.



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ggplot2 is a system for declaratively creating graphics, based on The Grammar of Graphics. You provide the data, tell ggplot2 how to map variables to aesthetics, what graphical primitives to use, and it takes care of the details.


# The easiest way to get ggplot2 is to install the whole tidyverse:

# Alternatively, install just ggplot2:

# Or the the development version from GitHub:
# install.packages("devtools")


It's hard to succintly describe how ggplot2 works because it embodies a deep philosophy of visualisation. However, in most cases you start with ggplot(), supply a dataset and aesthetic mapping (with aes()). You then add on layers (like geom_point() or geom_histogram()), scales (like scale_colour_brewer()), faceting specifications (like facet_wrap()) and coordinate systems (like coord_flip()).


ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy, colour = class)) + 

Learning ggplot2

If you are new to ggplot2 you are better off starting with a systematic introduction, rather than trying to learn from reading individual documentation pages. Currently, there are three good places to start:

  1. The data visualisation and graphics forcommunication chapters in R for data science. R for data science is designed to give you a comprehensive introduction to the tidyverse, and these two chapters will you get up to speed with the essentials of ggplot2 as quickly as possible.

  2. If you'd like to take an interactive online course, try Data visualisation with ggplot2 by Rick Scavetta on datacamp.

  3. If you want to dive into making common graphics as quickly as possible, I recommend The R Graphics Cookbook by Winston Chang. It provides a set of recipes to solve common graphics problems. A 2nd edition will is due out in 2017.

If you've mastered the basics and want to learn more, read ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. It describes the theoretical underpinnings of ggplot2 and shows you how all the pieces fit together. This book helps you understand the theory that underpins ggplot2, and will help you create new types of graphic specifically tailored to your needs. The book is not available for free, but you can find the complete source for the book at

Getting help

There are two main places to get help with ggplot2:

  1. The ggplot2 mailing list is a friendly place to ask any questions about ggplot2. You must be a member to post messages, but anyone can read the archived discussions.

  2. stackoverflow is a great source of answers to common ggplot2 questions. It is also a great place to get help, once you have created a reproducible example that illustrates your problem.

Functions in ggplot2

Name Description
aes Construct aesthetic mappings
aes_group_order Aesthetics: grouping
aes_all Given a character vector, create a set of identity mappings
aes_linetype_size_shape Differentiation related aesthetics: linetype, size, shape
aes_ Define aesthetic mappings programatically
aes_position Position related aesthetics: x, y, xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax, xend, yend
absoluteGrob Absolute grob
aes_colour_fill_alpha Colour related aesthetics: colour, fill and alpha
add_theme Modify properties of an element in a theme object
aes_auto Automatic aesthetic mapping
annotate Create an annotation layer
autoplot Create a complete ggplot appropriate to a particular data type
annotation_raster Annotation: high-performance rectangular tiling
as.list.ggproto Convert a ggproto object to a list
borders Create a layer of map borders
as_labeller Coerce to labeller function
benchplot Benchmark plot creation time. Broken down into construct, build, render and draw times.
annotation_custom Annotation: Custom grob
annotation_map Annotation: a maps
annotation_logticks Annotation: log tick marks
coord_munch Munch coordinates data
coord_fixed Cartesian coordinates with fixed "aspect ratio"
combine_vars Take input data and define a mapping between facetting variables and ROW, COL and PANEL keys
coord_flip Cartesian coordinates with x and y flipped
coord_polar Polar coordinates
calc_element Calculate the element properties, by inheriting properties from its parents
coord_map Map projections
continuous_scale Continuous scale constructor.
coord_cartesian Cartesian coordinates
coord_trans Transformed Cartesian coordinate system
economics US economic time series
cut_interval Discretise numeric data into categorical
draw_key Key drawing functions
element_grob Generate grid grob from theme element
diamonds Prices of 50,000 round cut diamonds
facet_grid Lay out panels in a grid
discrete_scale Discrete scale constructor.
facet_null Facet specification: a single panel.
margin Theme elements
expand_limits Expand the plot limits, using data
facet_wrap Wrap a 1d ribbon of panels into 2d
fortify-multcomp Fortify methods for objects produced by multcomp
geom_abline Reference lines: horizontal, vertical, and diagonal
fortify Fortify a model with data.
fortify.lm Supplement the data fitted to a linear model with model fit statistics.
fortify.sp Fortify method for classes from the sp package.
faithfuld 2d density estimate of Old Faithful data Fortify method for map objects
geom_bar Bars charts
find_panel Find panels in a gtable
geom_density Smoothed density estimates
geom_crossbar Vertical intervals: lines, crossbars & errorbars
geom_dotplot Dot plot
geom_map Polygons from a reference map
geom_rug Rug plots in the margins
geom_segment Line segments and curves
ggsave Save a ggplot (or other grid object) with sensible defaults
ggtheme Complete themes
limits Generate correct scale type for specified limits
geom_bin2d Heatmap of 2d bin counts
geom_blank Draw nothing
geom_path Connect observations
geom_smooth Smoothed conditional means
geom_spoke Line segments parameterised by location, direction and distance
geom_point Points
ggplot_gtable Build a plot with all the usual bits and pieces.
ggplot Create a new ggplot
guide_legend Legend guide
geom_violin Violin plot
gg_dep Give a deprecation error, warning, or message, depending on version number.
hmisc A selection of summary functions from Hmisc
mean_se Calculate mean and standard error
is.Coord Is this object a coordinate system?
midwest Midwest demographics
position_jitter Jitter points to avoid overplotting
position_jitterdodge Simultaneously dodge and jitter
reexports Objects exported from other packages
remove_missing Convenience function to remove missing values from a data.frame
geom_count Count overlapping points
geom_density_2d Contours of a 2d density estimate
geom_jitter Jittered points
geom_freqpoly Histograms and frequency polygons Add components to a plot
ggplot_build Build ggplot for rendering.
graphical-units Graphical units
guide_colourbar Continuous colour bar guide
label_bquote Label with mathematical expressions
labeller Construct labelling specification
guides Set guides for each scale
labellers Useful labeller functions
labs Modify axis, legend, and plot labels
presidential Terms of 11 presidents from Eisenhower to Obama
print.ggplot Explicitly draw plot
render_axes Render panel axes
render_strips Render panel strips
stat_summary_bin Summarise y values at unique/binned x
stat_unique Remove duplicates
geom_boxplot A box and whiskers plot (in the style of Tukey)
geom_contour 2d contours of a 3d surface
geom_polygon Polygons
geom_qq A quantile-quantile plot
ggplot2-ggproto Base ggproto classes for ggplot2
ggplot2-package Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics
is.ggplot Reports whether x is a ggplot object
is.facet Is this object a facetting specification?
last_plot Retrieve the last plot to be modified or created.
layer Create a new layer
position_nudge Nudge points a fixed distance
position_stack Stack overlapping objects on top of each another
print.ggproto Format or print a ggproto object
qplot Quick plot
scale_x_discrete Position scales for discrete data
scale_date Position scales for date/time data
stat_identity Leave data as is
lims Set scale limits
stat_summary_2d Bin and summarise in 2d (rectangle & hexagons)
position_dodge Dodge overlapping objects side-to-side
position_identity Don't adjust position
scale_colour_brewer Sequential, diverging and qualitative colour scales from
scale_continuous Position scales for continuous data (x & y)
scale_colour_gradient Gradient colour scales
geom_hex Hexagonal heatmap of 2d bin counts
geom_quantile Quantile regression
geom_errorbarh Horizontal error bars
geom_ribbon Ribbons and area plots
geom_raster Rectangles
geom_label Text
ggplotGrob Generate a ggplot2 plot grob.
ggproto Create a new ggproto object
is.rel Reports whether x is a rel object
is.theme Reports whether x is a theme object
scale_size Scales for area or radius
scale_shape Scales for shapes, aka glyphs
seals Vector field of seal movements
sec_axis Specify a secondary axis
waiver A waiver object.
scale_colour_grey Sequential grey colour scales
wrap_dims Arrange 1d structure into a grid
summary.ggplot Displays a useful description of a ggplot object
theme_get Get, set, and modify the active theme
zeroGrob The zero grob draws nothing and has zero size.
map_data Create a data frame of map data
scale_alpha Alpha transparency scales
max_height Get the maximal width/length of a list of grobs
scale_linetype Scale for line patterns
resolution Compute the "resolution" of a numeric vector
scale_manual Create your own discrete scale
stat_ellipse Compute normal confidence ellipses
stat_function Compute function for each x value
translate_qplot_ggplot Translating between qplot and ggplot
translate_qplot_lattice Translating between qplot and lattice
mpg Fuel economy data from 1999 and 2008 for 38 popular models of car
msleep An updated and expanded version of the mammals sleep dataset
scale_colour_hue Evenly spaced colours for discrete data
should_stop Used in examples to illustrate when errors should occur.
scale_identity Use values without scaling
theme Modify components of a theme
stat_ecdf Compute empirical cumulative distribution
transform_position Convenience function to transform all position variables.
update_geom_defaults Modify geom/stat aesthetic defaults for future plots
update_labels Update axis/legend labels
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License GPL-2 | file LICENSE
LazyData true
Collate 'ggproto.r' 'aaa-.r' 'aes-calculated.r' 'aes-colour-fill-alpha.r' 'aes-group-order.r' 'aes-linetype-size-shape.r' 'aes-position.r' 'utilities.r' 'aes.r' 'legend-draw.r' 'geom-.r' 'annotation-custom.r' 'annotation-logticks.r' 'geom-polygon.r' 'geom-map.r' 'annotation-map.r' 'geom-raster.r' 'annotation-raster.r' 'annotation.r' 'autoplot.r' 'axis-secondary.R' 'bench.r' 'bin.R' 'coord-.r' 'coord-cartesian-.r' 'coord-fixed.r' 'coord-flip.r' 'coord-map.r' 'coord-munch.r' 'coord-polar.r' 'coord-quickmap.R' 'coord-transform.r' 'data.R' 'facet-.r' 'facet-grid-.r' 'facet-null.r' 'facet-wrap.r' 'fortify-lm.r' 'fortify-map.r' 'fortify-multcomp.r' 'fortify-spatial.r' 'fortify.r' 'stat-.r' 'geom-abline.r' 'geom-rect.r' 'geom-bar.r' 'geom-bin2d.r' 'geom-blank.r' 'geom-boxplot.r' 'geom-col.r' 'geom-path.r' 'geom-contour.r' 'geom-count.r' 'geom-crossbar.r' 'geom-segment.r' 'geom-curve.r' 'geom-defaults.r' 'geom-ribbon.r' 'geom-density.r' 'geom-density2d.r' 'geom-dotplot.r' 'geom-errorbar.r' 'geom-errorbarh.r' 'geom-freqpoly.r' 'geom-hex.r' 'geom-histogram.r' 'geom-hline.r' 'geom-jitter.r' 'geom-label.R' 'geom-linerange.r' 'geom-point.r' 'geom-pointrange.r' 'geom-quantile.r' 'geom-rug.r' 'geom-smooth.r' 'geom-spoke.r' 'geom-text.r' 'geom-tile.r' 'geom-violin.r' 'geom-vline.r' 'ggplot2.r' 'grob-absolute.r' 'grob-dotstack.r' 'grob-null.r' 'grouping.r' 'guide-colorbar.r' 'guide-legend.r' 'guides-.r' 'guides-axis.r' 'guides-grid.r' 'hexbin.R' 'labeller.r' 'labels.r' 'layer.r' 'layout.R' 'limits.r' 'margins.R' 'plot-build.r' 'plot-construction.r' 'plot-last.r' 'plot.r' 'position-.r' 'position-collide.r' 'position-dodge.r' 'position-identity.r' 'position-jitter.r' 'position-jitterdodge.R' 'position-nudge.R' 'position-stack.r' 'quick-plot.r' 'range.r' 'save.r' 'scale-.r' 'scale-alpha.r' 'scale-brewer.r' 'scale-continuous.r' 'scale-date.r' 'scale-discrete-.r' 'scale-gradient.r' 'scale-grey.r' 'scale-hue.r' 'scale-identity.r' 'scale-linetype.r' 'scale-manual.r' 'scale-shape.r' 'scale-size.r' 'scale-type.R' 'scales-.r' 'stat-bin.r' 'stat-bin2d.r' 'stat-bindot.r' 'stat-binhex.r' 'stat-boxplot.r' 'stat-contour.r' 'stat-count.r' 'stat-density-2d.r' 'stat-density.r' 'stat-ecdf.r' 'stat-ellipse.R' 'stat-function.r' 'stat-identity.r' 'stat-qq.r' 'stat-quantile.r' 'stat-smooth-methods.r' 'stat-smooth.r' 'stat-sum.r' 'stat-summary-2d.r' 'stat-summary-bin.R' 'stat-summary-hex.r' 'stat-summary.r' 'stat-unique.r' 'stat-ydensity.r' 'summary.r' 'theme-elements.r' 'theme.r' 'theme-defaults.r' 'theme-current.R' 'translate-qplot-ggplot.r' 'translate-qplot-lattice.r' 'utilities-break.r' 'utilities-grid.r' 'utilities-help.r' 'utilities-matrix.r' 'utilities-resolution.r' 'utilities-table.r' 'zxx.r' 'zzz.r'
VignetteBuilder knitr
RoxygenNote 5.0.1
NeedsCompilation no
Packaged 2016-11-09 13:44:31 UTC; hadley
Repository CRAN
Date/Publication 2016-11-11 12:24:31

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