ggplot2 v3.3.3


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Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics

A system for 'declaratively' creating graphics, based on "The Grammar of Graphics". You provide the data, tell 'ggplot2' how to map variables to aesthetics, what graphical primitives to use, and it takes care of the details.



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ggplot2 is a system for declaratively creating graphics, based on The Grammar of Graphics. You provide the data, tell ggplot2 how to map variables to aesthetics, what graphical primitives to use, and it takes care of the details.


# The easiest way to get ggplot2 is to install the whole tidyverse:

# Alternatively, install just ggplot2:

# Or the development version from GitHub:
# install.packages("devtools")



It’s hard to succinctly describe how ggplot2 works because it embodies a deep philosophy of visualisation. However, in most cases you start with ggplot(), supply a dataset and aesthetic mapping (with aes()). You then add on layers (like geom_point() or geom_histogram()), scales (like scale_colour_brewer()), faceting specifications (like facet_wrap()) and coordinate systems (like coord_flip()).


ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy, colour = class)) + 



ggplot2 is now over 10 years old and is used by hundreds of thousands of people to make millions of plots. That means, by-and-large, ggplot2 itself changes relatively little. When we do make changes, they will be generally to add new functions or arguments rather than changing the behaviour of existing functions, and if we do make changes to existing behaviour we will do them for compelling reasons.

If you are looking for innovation, look to ggplot2’s rich ecosystem of extensions. See a community maintained list at

Learning ggplot2

If you are new to ggplot2 you are better off starting with a systematic introduction, rather than trying to learn from reading individual documentation pages. Currently, there are three good places to start:

  1. The Data Visualisation and Graphics for communication chapters in R for Data Science. R for Data Science is designed to give you a comprehensive introduction to the tidyverse, and these two chapters will get you up to speed with the essentials of ggplot2 as quickly as possible.

  2. If you’d like to follow a webinar, try [Plotting Anything with ggplot2][] by Thomas Lin Pedersen.

  3. If you want to dive into making common graphics as quickly as possible, I recommend The R Graphics Cookbook by Winston Chang. It provides a set of recipes to solve common graphics problems.

If you’ve mastered the basics and want to learn more, read ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. It describes the theoretical underpinnings of ggplot2 and shows you how all the pieces fit together. This book helps you understand the theory that underpins ggplot2, and will help you create new types of graphics specifically tailored to your needs.

Getting help

There are two main places to get help with ggplot2:

  1. The RStudio community is a friendly place to ask any questions about ggplot2.

  2. Stack Overflow is a great source of answers to common ggplot2 questions. It is also a great place to get help, once you have created a reproducible example that illustrates your problem.

Functions in ggplot2

Name Description
aes_colour_fill_alpha Colour related aesthetics: colour, fill, and alpha
aes Construct aesthetic mappings
aes_all Given a character vector, create a set of identity mappings
aes_group_order Aesthetics: grouping
aes_ Define aesthetic mappings programmatically
aes_eval Control aesthetic evaluation
aes_linetype_size_shape Differentiation related aesthetics: linetype, size, shape
add_theme Modify properties of an element in a theme object
absoluteGrob Absolute grob
aes_auto Automatic aesthetic mapping
aes_position Position related aesthetics: x, y, xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax, xend, yend
autolayer Create a ggplot layer appropriate to a particular data type
annotation_custom Annotation: Custom grob
coord_fixed Cartesian coordinates with fixed "aspect ratio"
annotation_map Annotation: a maps
coord_flip Cartesian coordinates with x and y flipped
benchplot Benchmark plot creation time. Broken down into construct, build, render and draw times.
annotation_logticks Annotation: log tick marks
discrete_scale Discrete scale constructor
bidirection Utilities for working with bidirectional layers
annotate Create an annotation layer
coord_cartesian Cartesian coordinates
autoplot Create a complete ggplot appropriate to a particular data type
coord_polar Polar coordinates
continuous_scale Continuous scale constructor
as.list.ggproto Convert a ggproto object to a list
calc_element Calculate the element properties, by inheriting properties from its parents
combine_vars Take input data and define a mapping between faceting variables and ROW, COL and PANEL keys
as_labeller Coerce to labeller function
cut_interval Discretise numeric data into categorical
diamonds Prices of over 50,000 round cut diamonds
binned_scale Binning scale constructor
borders Create a layer of map borders
annotation_raster Annotation: high-performance rectangular tiling
coord_map Map projections
fortify-multcomp Fortify methods for objects produced by multcomp
coord_munch Munch coordinates data
find_panel Find panels in a gtable
geom_blank Draw nothing
geom_bin2d Heatmap of 2d bin counts
coord_trans Transformed Cartesian coordinate system
facet_grid Lay out panels in a grid
geom_count Count overlapping points
geom_density Smoothed density estimates
draw_key Key glyphs for legends
geom_abline Reference lines: horizontal, vertical, and diagonal
geom_bar Bar charts
facet_null Facet specification: a single panel.
geom_freqpoly Histograms and frequency polygons
geom_hex Hexagonal heatmap of 2d bin counts
margin Theme elements
economics US economic time series
facet_wrap Wrap a 1d ribbon of panels into 2d
expand_limits Expand the plot limits, using data
faithfuld 2d density estimate of Old Faithful data
geom_point Points
geom_boxplot A box and whiskers plot (in the style of Tukey)
geom_map Polygons from a reference map
expansion Generate expansion vector for scales
geom_contour 2D contours of a 3D surface
fortify Fortify a model with data.
geom_path Connect observations
geom_jitter Jittered points
element_grob Generate grid grob from theme element
geom_smooth Smoothed conditional means
fortify.lm Supplement the data fitted to a linear model with model fit statistics.
geom_segment Line segments and curves Add components to a plot
geom_qq_line A quantile-quantile plot
geom_crossbar Vertical intervals: lines, crossbars & errorbars
geom_quantile Quantile regression
geom_polygon Polygons
element_render Render a specified theme element into a grob
ggplot Create a new ggplot
gg_dep Give a deprecation error, warning, or message, depending on version number.
geom_dotplot Dot plot
geom_density_2d Contours of a 2D density estimate
ggplot2-ggproto Base ggproto classes for ggplot2
guide-exts S3 generics for guides.
geom_ribbon Ribbons and area plots
geom_function Draw a function as a continuous curve
geom_errorbarh Horizontal error bars
geom_spoke Line segments parameterised by location, direction and distance Fortify method for map objects
fortify.sp Fortify method for classes from the sp package.
geom_label Text
geom_rug Rug plots in the margins
guide_axis Axis guide
ggplot2-package ggplot2: Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics
hmisc A selection of summary functions from Hmisc
is.Coord Is this object a coordinate system?
ggplot_add Add custom objects to ggplot
guide_coloursteps Discretized colourbar guide
max_height Get the maximal width/length of a list of grobs
print.ggplot Explicitly draw plot
limits Generate correct scale type for specified limits
layer_sf Create a new sf layer that auto-maps geometry data
map_data Create a data frame of map data
geom_violin Violin plot
geom_raster Rectangles
print.ggproto Format or print a ggproto object
resolution Compute the "resolution" of a numeric vector
ggtheme Complete themes
ggplot_build Build ggplot for rendering.
is.facet Is this object a faceting specification?
ggsave Save a ggplot (or other grid object) with sensible defaults
ggplotGrob Generate a ggplot2 plot grob.
CoordSf Visualise sf objects
labeller Construct labelling specification
ggproto Create a new ggproto object
label_bquote Label with mathematical expressions
ggplot_gtable Build a plot with all the usual bits and pieces.
graphical-units Graphical units
lims Set scale limits
guide_legend Legend guide
position_identity Don't adjust position
scale_alpha Alpha transparency scales
guide_bins A binned version of guide_legend
midwest Midwest demographics
luv_colours colors() in Luv space
is.rel Reports whether x is a rel object
guide_colourbar Continuous colour bar guide
position_jitter Jitter points to avoid overplotting
position_stack Stack overlapping objects on top of each another
scale_manual Create your own discrete scale
is.theme Reports whether x is a theme object
presidential Terms of 11 presidents from Eisenhower to Obama
labellers Useful labeller functions
labs Modify axis, legend, and plot labels
scale_binned Positional scales for binning continuous data (x & y)
is.ggplot Reports whether x is a ggplot object
qplot Quick plot
render_axes Render panel axes
mpg Fuel economy data from 1999 to 2008 for 38 popular models of cars
msleep An updated and expanded version of the mammals sleep dataset
position_dodge Dodge overlapping objects side-to-side
scale_shape Scales for shapes, aka glyphs
scale_type Determine default scale type
scale_colour_brewer Sequential, diverging and qualitative colour scales from
scale_x_discrete Position scales for discrete data
render_strips Render panel strips
seals Vector field of seal movements
stat_summary_bin Summarise y values at unique/binned x
sec_axis Specify a secondary axis
guide_none Empty guide
stat_sf_coordinates Extract coordinates from 'sf' objects
tidyeval Tidy eval helpers
guides Set guides for each scale
scale_colour_viridis_d Viridis colour scales from viridisLite
scale_colour_continuous Continuous and binned colour scales
reexports Objects exported from other packages
last_plot Retrieve the last plot to be modified or created.
transform_position Convenience function to transform all position variables.
stat_ellipse Compute normal data ellipses
scale_identity Use values without scaling
scale_linetype Scale for line patterns
scale_colour_discrete Discrete colour scales
scale_continuous Position scales for continuous data (x & y)
vars Quote faceting variables
stat_ecdf Compute empirical cumulative distribution
update_labels Update axis/legend labels
mean_se Calculate mean and standard error
standardise_aes_names Standardise aesthetic names
layer Create a new layer
merge_element Merge a parent element into a child element
scale_date Position scales for date/time data
scale_size Scales for area or radius
scale_colour_gradient Gradient colour scales
position_jitterdodge Simultaneously dodge and jitter
summarise_plot Summarise built plot objects
scale_colour_steps Binned gradient colour scales
summary.ggplot Displays a useful description of a ggplot object
stat_summary_2d Bin and summarise in 2d (rectangle & hexagons)
register_theme_elements Define and register new theme elements
scale_colour_grey Sequential grey colour scales
scale_colour_hue Evenly spaced colours for discrete data
position_nudge Nudge points a fixed distance
stat_unique Remove duplicates
remove_missing Convenience function to remove missing values from a data.frame
set_last_plot Set the last plot to be fetched by lastplot()
zeroGrob The zero grob draws nothing and has zero size.
translate_qplot_ggplot Translating between qplot and ggplot
translate_qplot_lattice Translating between qplot and lattice
txhousing Housing sales in TX
theme Modify components of a theme
theme_get Get, set, and modify the active theme
stat_identity Leave data as is
wrap_dims Arrange 1d structure into a grid
should_stop Used in examples to illustrate when errors should occur.
waiver A waiver object.
update_geom_defaults Modify geom/stat aesthetic defaults for future plots
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License MIT + file LICENSE
LazyData true
Collate 'ggproto.r' 'ggplot-global.R' 'aaa-.r' 'aes-colour-fill-alpha.r' 'aes-evaluation.r' 'aes-group-order.r' 'aes-linetype-size-shape.r' 'aes-position.r' 'compat-plyr.R' 'utilities.r' 'aes.r' 'legend-draw.r' 'geom-.r' 'annotation-custom.r' 'annotation-logticks.r' 'geom-polygon.r' 'geom-map.r' 'annotation-map.r' 'geom-raster.r' 'annotation-raster.r' 'annotation.r' 'autolayer.r' 'autoplot.r' 'axis-secondary.R' 'backports.R' 'bench.r' 'bin.R' 'coord-.r' 'coord-cartesian-.r' 'coord-fixed.r' 'coord-flip.r' 'coord-map.r' 'coord-munch.r' 'coord-polar.r' 'coord-quickmap.R' 'coord-sf.R' 'coord-transform.r' 'data.R' 'facet-.r' 'facet-grid-.r' 'facet-null.r' 'facet-wrap.r' 'fortify-lm.r' 'fortify-map.r' 'fortify-multcomp.r' 'fortify-spatial.r' 'fortify.r' 'stat-.r' 'geom-abline.r' 'geom-rect.r' 'geom-bar.r' 'geom-bin2d.r' 'geom-blank.r' 'geom-boxplot.r' 'geom-col.r' 'geom-path.r' 'geom-contour.r' 'geom-count.r' 'geom-crossbar.r' 'geom-segment.r' 'geom-curve.r' 'geom-defaults.r' 'geom-ribbon.r' 'geom-density.r' 'geom-density2d.r' 'geom-dotplot.r' 'geom-errorbar.r' 'geom-errorbarh.r' 'geom-freqpoly.r' 'geom-function.R' 'geom-hex.r' 'geom-histogram.r' 'geom-hline.r' 'geom-jitter.r' 'geom-label.R' 'geom-linerange.r' 'geom-point.r' 'geom-pointrange.r' 'geom-quantile.r' 'geom-rug.r' 'geom-sf.R' 'geom-smooth.r' 'geom-spoke.r' 'geom-text.r' 'geom-tile.r' 'geom-violin.r' 'geom-vline.r' 'ggplot2.r' 'grob-absolute.r' 'grob-dotstack.r' 'grob-null.r' 'grouping.r' 'guide-bins.R' 'guide-colorbar.r' 'guide-colorsteps.R' 'guide-legend.r' 'guides-.r' 'guides-axis.r' 'guides-grid.r' 'guides-none.r' 'hexbin.R' 'labeller.r' 'labels.r' 'layer.r' 'layer-sf.R' 'layout.R' 'limits.r' 'margins.R' 'performance.R' 'plot-build.r' 'plot-construction.r' 'plot-last.r' 'plot.r' 'position-.r' 'position-collide.r' 'position-dodge.r' 'position-dodge2.r' 'position-identity.r' 'position-jitter.r' 'position-jitterdodge.R' 'position-nudge.R' 'position-stack.r' 'quick-plot.r' 'range.r' 'reshape-add-margins.R' 'save.r' 'scale-.r' 'scale-alpha.r' 'scale-binned.R' 'scale-brewer.r' 'scale-colour.r' 'scale-continuous.r' 'scale-date.r' 'scale-discrete-.r' 'scale-expansion.r' 'scale-gradient.r' 'scale-grey.r' 'scale-hue.r' 'scale-identity.r' 'scale-linetype.r' 'scale-manual.r' 'scale-shape.r' 'scale-size.r' 'scale-steps.R' 'scale-type.R' 'scale-view.r' 'scale-viridis.r' 'scales-.r' 'stat-bin.r' 'stat-bin2d.r' 'stat-bindot.r' 'stat-binhex.r' 'stat-boxplot.r' 'stat-contour.r' 'stat-count.r' 'stat-density-2d.r' 'stat-density.r' 'stat-ecdf.r' 'stat-ellipse.R' 'stat-function.r' 'stat-identity.r' 'stat-qq-line.R' 'stat-qq.r' 'stat-quantile.r' 'stat-sf-coordinates.R' 'stat-sf.R' 'stat-smooth-methods.r' 'stat-smooth.r' 'stat-sum.r' 'stat-summary-2d.r' 'stat-summary-bin.R' 'stat-summary-hex.r' 'stat-summary.r' 'stat-unique.r' 'stat-ydensity.r' 'summarise-plot.R' 'summary.r' 'theme-elements.r' 'theme.r' 'theme-defaults.r' 'theme-current.R' 'translate-qplot-ggplot.r' 'translate-qplot-lattice.r' 'utilities-break.r' 'utilities-grid.r' 'utilities-help.r' 'utilities-matrix.r' 'utilities-resolution.r' 'utilities-table.r' 'utilities-tidy-eval.R' 'zxx.r' 'zzz.r'
VignetteBuilder knitr
RoxygenNote 7.1.1
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Packaged 2020-12-17 12:32:40 UTC; thomas
Repository CRAN
Date/Publication 2020-12-30 15:30:02 UTC

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