# barplot2

##### Enhanced Bar Plots

An enhancement of the standard barplot() function. Creates a bar plot with vertical or horizontal bars. Can plot confidence intervals for each bar, a lined grid behind the bars, change plot area color and logarithmic axes may be used.

- Keywords
- hplot

##### Usage

```
# S3 method for default
barplot2(height, width = 1, space = NULL,
names.arg = NULL, legend.text = NULL, beside = FALSE,
horiz = FALSE, density = NULL, angle = 45,
col = NULL, prcol = NULL, border = par("fg"),
main = NULL, sub = NULL, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL,
xlim = NULL, ylim = NULL, xpd = TRUE, log = "",
axes = TRUE, axisnames = TRUE,
cex.axis = par("cex.axis"), cex.names = par("cex.axis"),
inside = TRUE, plot = TRUE, axis.lty = 0, offset = 0,
plot.ci = FALSE, ci.l = NULL, ci.u = NULL,
ci.color = "black", ci.lty = "solid", ci.lwd = 1, ci.width = 0.5,
plot.grid = FALSE, grid.inc = NULL,
grid.lty = "dotted", grid.lwd = 1, grid.col = "black",
add = FALSE, panel.first = NULL, panel.last = NULL, …)
```

##### Arguments

- height
either a vector or matrix of values describing the bars which make up the plot. If

`height`

is a vector, the plot consists of a sequence of rectangular bars with heights given by the values in the vector. If`height`

is a matrix and`beside`

is`FALSE`

then each bar of the plot corresponds to a column of`height`

, with the values in the column giving the heights of stacked ``sub-bars'' making up the bar. If`height`

is a matrix and`beside`

is`TRUE`

, then the values in each column are juxtaposed rather than stacked.- width
optional vector of bar widths. Re-cycled to length the number of bars drawn. Specifying a single value will no visible effect unless

`xlim`

is specified.- space
the amount of space (as a fraction of the average bar width) left before each bar. May be given as a single number or one number per bar. If

`height`

is a matrix and`beside`

is`TRUE`

,`space`

may be specified by two numbers, where the first is the space between bars in the same group, and the second the space between the groups. If not given explicitly, it defaults to`c(0,1)`

if`height`

is a matrix and`beside`

is`TRUE`

, and to 0.2 otherwise.- names.arg
a vector of names to be plotted below each bar or group of bars. If this argument is omitted, then the names are taken from the

`names`

attribute of`height`

if this is a vector, or the column names if it is a matrix.- legend.text
a vector of text used to construct a legend for the plot, or a logical indicating whether a legend should be included. This is only useful when

`height`

is a matrix. In that case given legend labels should correspond to the rows of`height`

; if`legend.text`

is true, the row names of`height`

will be used as labels if they are non-null.- beside
a logical value. If

`FALSE`

, the columns of`height`

are portrayed as stacked bars, and if`TRUE`

the columns are portrayed as juxtaposed bars.- horiz
a logical value. If

`FALSE`

, the bars are drawn vertically with the first bar to the left. If`TRUE`

, the bars are drawn horizontally with the first at the bottom.- density
a vector giving the the density of shading lines, in lines per inch, for the bars or bar components. The default value of

`NULL`

means that no shading lines are drawn. Non-positive values of`density`

also inhibit the drawing of shading lines.- angle
the slope of shading lines, given as an angle in degrees (counter-clockwise), for the bars or bar components.

- col
a vector of colors for the bars or bar components. By default, grey is used if

`height`

is a vector, and`heat.colors(nrow(height))`

if`height`

is a matrix.- prcol
the color to be used for the plot region.

- border
the color to be used for the border of the bars.

- main, sub
overall and sub titles for the plot.

- xlab
a label for the x axis.

- ylab
a label for the y axis.

- xlim
limits for the x axis.

- ylim
limits for the y axis.

- xpd
logical. Should bars be allowed to go outside region?

- log
a character string which contains `"x"' if the x axis is to be logarithmic, `"y"' if the y axis is to be logarithmic and `"xy"' or `"yx"' if both axes are to be logarithmic.

- axes
logical. If

`TRUE`

, a vertical (or horizontal, if`horiz`

is true) axis is drawn.- axisnames
logical. If

`TRUE`

, and if there are`names.arg`

(see above), the other axis is drawn (with`lty = 0`

) and labeled.- cex.axis
expansion factor for numeric axis labels.

- cex.names
expansion factor for names.

- inside
logical. If

`TRUE`

, the lines which divide adjacent (non-stacked!) bars will be drawn. Only applies when`space = 0`

(which it partly is when`beside = TRUE`

).- plot
logical. If

`FALSE`

, nothing is plotted.- axis.lty
the graphics parameter

`lty`

applied to the axis and tick marks of the categorical (default horzontal) axis. Note that by default the axis is suppressed.- offset
a vector indicating how much the bars should be shifted relative to the x axis.

- plot.ci
logical. If

`TRUE`

, confidence intervals are plotted over the bars. Note that if a stacked bar plot is generated, confidence intervals will not be plotted even if`plot.ci = TRUE`

- ci.l,ci.u
The confidence intervals (ci.l = lower bound, ci.u = upper bound) to be plotted if

`plot.ci`

=`TRUE`

. Values must have the same dim structure as`height`

.- ci.color
the color for the confidence interval line segments

- ci.lty
the line type for the confidence interval line segments

- ci.lwd
the line width for the confidence interval line segments

- ci.width
length of lines used for the "t" at the end of confidence interval line segments, as a multple of

`width`

. Defaults to 0.5.- plot.grid
if

`TRUE`

a lined grid will be plotted behind the bars- grid.inc
the number of grid increments to be plotted

- grid.lty
the line type for the grid

- grid.lwd
the line width for the grid

- grid.col
the line color for the grid

- add
logical, if

`TRUE`

add barplot to current plot.- panel.first
An expression to be evaluated after the plot region coordinates have been set up, but prior to the drawing of the bars and other plot region contents. This can be useful to add additional plot region content behind the bars. This will also work if

`add`

=`TRUE`

- panel.last
An expression to be evaluated after the bars have been drawn, but prior to the addition of confidence intervals, a legend and the axis annotation

- …
further graphical parameters (

`par`

) are passed to`plot.window()`

,`title()`

and`axis`

.

##### Details

This is a generic function, it currently only has a default method. A formula interface may be added eventually.

##### Value

A numeric vector (or matrix, when `beside = TRUE`

), say
`mp`

, giving the coordinates of *all* the bar midpoints
drawn, useful for adding to the graph.

If `beside`

is true, use `colMeans(mp)`

for the
midpoints of each *group* of bars, see example.

##### Note

Prior to R 1.6.0, `barplot`

behaved as if `axis.lty = 1`

,
unintentionally.
0 (zero) and NA values in `height`

will not be plotted if
using logarithmic scales.
If there are NA values in `height`

and `beside = FALSE`

,
values after the NA will not be plotted in stacked bars.

##### See Also

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
tN <- table(Ni <- rpois(100, lambda = 5))
r <- barplot2(tN, col = 'gray')
#- type = "h" plotting *is* `bar'plot
lines(r, tN, type = 'h', col = 'red', lwd = 2)
barplot2(tN, space = 1.5, axisnames = FALSE,
sub = "barplot2(..., space = 1.5, axisnames = FALSE)")
data(VADeaths, package = "datasets")
barplot2(VADeaths, plot = FALSE)
barplot2(VADeaths, plot = FALSE, beside = TRUE)
mp <- barplot2(VADeaths) # default
tot <- colMeans(VADeaths)
text(mp, tot + 3, format(tot), xpd = TRUE, col = "blue")
barplot2(VADeaths, beside = TRUE,
col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan",
"lavender", "cornsilk"),
legend = rownames(VADeaths), ylim = c(0, 100))
title(main = "Death Rates in Virginia", font.main = 4)
# Example with confidence intervals and grid
hh <- t(VADeaths)[, 5:1]
mybarcol <- "gray20"
ci.l <- hh * 0.85
ci.u <- hh * 1.15
mp <- barplot2(hh, beside = TRUE,
col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose",
"lightcyan", "lavender"),
legend = colnames(VADeaths), ylim = c(0, 100),
main = "Death Rates in Virginia", font.main = 4,
sub = "Faked 95 percent error bars", col.sub = mybarcol,
cex.names = 1.5, plot.ci = TRUE, ci.l = ci.l, ci.u = ci.u,
plot.grid = TRUE)
mtext(side = 1, at = colMeans(mp), line = -2,
text = paste("Mean", formatC(colMeans(hh))), col = "red")
box()
# Example with horizontal bars, grid and logarithmic x axis
barplot2(1:10 , log = "x", plot.grid = TRUE, grid.inc = 10,
xlim = c(0.5, 20), horiz = TRUE, cex.axis = 0.9,
prcol = "gray95")
box()
# Bar shading example
barplot2(VADeaths, angle = 15 + 10 * 1:5, density = 20, col = "black",
legend = rownames(VADeaths))
title(main = list("Death Rates in Virginia", font = 4))
# border :
barplot2(VADeaths, border = "dark blue")
# }
# NOT RUN {
<!-- % lwd = 2 << not passed -->
# }
# NOT RUN {
<!-- %notyet barplot(VADeaths, inside = FALSE, main = "barplot(*, inside=FALSE)") -->
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package gplots, version 3.0.1.1, License: GPL-2*