An enhancement of the standard barplot() function. Creates a bar plot with vertical or horizontal bars. Can plot confidence intervals for each bar, a lined grid behind the bars, change plot area color and logarithmic axes may be used.

```
# S3 method for default
barplot2(height, width = 1, space = NULL,
names.arg = NULL, legend.text = NULL, beside = FALSE,
horiz = FALSE, density = NULL, angle = 45,
col = NULL, prcol = NULL, border = par("fg"),
main = NULL, sub = NULL, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL,
xlim = NULL, ylim = NULL, xpd = TRUE, log = "",
axes = TRUE, axisnames = TRUE,
cex.axis = par("cex.axis"), cex.names = par("cex.axis"),
inside = TRUE, plot = TRUE, axis.lty = 0, offset = 0,
plot.ci = FALSE, ci.l = NULL, ci.u = NULL,
ci.color = "black", ci.lty = "solid", ci.lwd = 1, ci.width = 0.5,
plot.grid = FALSE, grid.inc = NULL,
grid.lty = "dotted", grid.lwd = 1, grid.col = "black",
add = FALSE, panel.first = NULL, panel.last = NULL, …)
```

height

either a vector or matrix of values describing the
bars which make up the plot. If `height`

is a vector, the
plot consists of a sequence of rectangular bars with heights
given by the values in the vector. If `height`

is a matrix
and `beside`

is `FALSE`

then each bar of the plot
corresponds to a column of `height`

, with the values in the
column giving the heights of stacked ``sub-bars'' making up the
bar. If `height`

is a matrix and `beside`

is
`TRUE`

, then the values in each column are juxtaposed
rather than stacked.

width

optional vector of bar widths. Re-cycled to length the
number of bars drawn. Specifying a single value will no visible
effect unless `xlim`

is specified.

space

the amount of space (as a fraction of the average bar
width) left before each bar. May be given as a single number or
one number per bar. If `height`

is a matrix and
`beside`

is `TRUE`

, `space`

may be specified by
two numbers, where the first is the space between bars in the
same group, and the second the space between the groups. If not
given explicitly, it defaults to `c(0,1)`

if `height`

is a matrix and `beside`

is `TRUE`

, and to 0.2
otherwise.

names.arg

a vector of names to be plotted below each bar or
group of bars. If this argument is omitted, then the names are
taken from the `names`

attribute of `height`

if this
is a vector, or the column names if it is a matrix.

legend.text

a vector of text used to construct a legend for
the plot, or a logical indicating whether a legend should be
included. This is only useful when `height`

is a matrix.
In that case given legend labels should correspond to the rows of
`height`

; if `legend.text`

is true, the row names of
`height`

will be used as labels if they are non-null.

beside

a logical value. If `FALSE`

, the columns of
`height`

are portrayed as stacked bars, and if `TRUE`

the columns are portrayed as juxtaposed bars.

horiz

a logical value. If `FALSE`

, the bars are drawn
vertically with the first bar to the left. If `TRUE`

, the
bars are drawn horizontally with the first at the bottom.

density

a vector giving the the density of shading lines, in
lines per inch, for the bars or bar components.
The default value of `NULL`

means that no shading lines
are drawn. Non-positive values of `density`

also inhibit the
drawing of shading lines.

angle

the slope of shading lines, given as an angle in degrees (counter-clockwise), for the bars or bar components.

col

a vector of colors for the bars or bar components.
By default, grey is used if `height`

is a vector, and
`heat.colors(nrow(height))`

if `height`

is a matrix.

prcol

the color to be used for the plot region.

border

the color to be used for the border of the bars.

main, sub

overall and sub titles for the plot.

xlab

a label for the x axis.

ylab

a label for the y axis.

xlim

limits for the x axis.

ylim

limits for the y axis.

xpd

logical. Should bars be allowed to go outside region?

log

a character string which contains `"x"' if the x axis is to be logarithmic, `"y"' if the y axis is to be logarithmic and `"xy"' or `"yx"' if both axes are to be logarithmic.

axes

logical. If `TRUE`

, a vertical (or horizontal, if
`horiz`

is true) axis is drawn.

axisnames

logical. If `TRUE`

, and if there are
`names.arg`

(see above), the
other axis is drawn (with `lty = 0`

) and labeled.

cex.axis

expansion factor for numeric axis labels.

cex.names

expansion factor for names.

inside

logical. If `TRUE`

, the lines which divide
adjacent (non-stacked!) bars will be drawn. Only applies when
`space = 0`

(which it partly is when `beside = TRUE`

).

plot

logical. If `FALSE`

, nothing is plotted.

axis.lty

the graphics parameter `lty`

applied to the axis
and tick marks of the categorical (default horzontal) axis. Note
that by default the axis is suppressed.

offset

a vector indicating how much the bars should be shifted relative to the x axis.

plot.ci

logical. If `TRUE`

, confidence intervals are plotted
over the bars. Note that if a stacked bar plot is generated, confidence
intervals will not be plotted even if `plot.ci = TRUE`

ci.l,ci.u

The confidence intervals (ci.l = lower bound, ci.u =
upper bound) to be plotted if `plot.ci`

= `TRUE`

. Values must have
the same dim structure as `height`

.

ci.color

the color for the confidence interval line segments

ci.lty

the line type for the confidence interval line segments

ci.lwd

the line width for the confidence interval line segments

ci.width

length of lines used for the "t" at the end of confidence
interval line segments, as a multple of `width`

. Defaults to 0.5.

plot.grid

if `TRUE`

a lined grid will be plotted behind the bars

grid.inc

the number of grid increments to be plotted

grid.lty

the line type for the grid

grid.lwd

the line width for the grid

grid.col

the line color for the grid

add

logical, if `TRUE`

add barplot to current plot.

panel.first

An expression to be evaluated after the plot region
coordinates have been set up, but prior to the drawing of the bars
and other plot region contents. This can be useful to add additional
plot region content behind the bars. This will also work if
`add`

= `TRUE`

panel.last

An expression to be evaluated after the bars have been drawn, but prior to the addition of confidence intervals, a legend and the axis annotation

…

further graphical parameters (`par`

) are
passed to `plot.window()`

, `title()`

and
`axis`

.

A numeric vector (or matrix, when `beside = TRUE`

), say
`mp`

, giving the coordinates of *all* the bar midpoints
drawn, useful for adding to the graph.

If `beside`

is true, use `colMeans(mp)`

for the
midpoints of each *group* of bars, see example.

This is a generic function, it currently only has a default method. A formula interface may be added eventually.

# NOT RUN { tN <- table(Ni <- rpois(100, lambda = 5)) r <- barplot2(tN, col = 'gray') #- type = "h" plotting *is* `bar'plot lines(r, tN, type = 'h', col = 'red', lwd = 2) barplot2(tN, space = 1.5, axisnames = FALSE, sub = "barplot2(..., space = 1.5, axisnames = FALSE)") data(VADeaths, package = "datasets") barplot2(VADeaths, plot = FALSE) barplot2(VADeaths, plot = FALSE, beside = TRUE) mp <- barplot2(VADeaths) # default tot <- colMeans(VADeaths) text(mp, tot + 3, format(tot), xpd = TRUE, col = "blue") barplot2(VADeaths, beside = TRUE, col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan", "lavender", "cornsilk"), legend = rownames(VADeaths), ylim = c(0, 100)) title(main = "Death Rates in Virginia", font.main = 4) # Example with confidence intervals and grid hh <- t(VADeaths)[, 5:1] mybarcol <- "gray20" ci.l <- hh * 0.85 ci.u <- hh * 1.15 mp <- barplot2(hh, beside = TRUE, col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan", "lavender"), legend = colnames(VADeaths), ylim = c(0, 100), main = "Death Rates in Virginia", font.main = 4, sub = "Faked 95 percent error bars", col.sub = mybarcol, cex.names = 1.5, plot.ci = TRUE, ci.l = ci.l, ci.u = ci.u, plot.grid = TRUE) mtext(side = 1, at = colMeans(mp), line = -2, text = paste("Mean", formatC(colMeans(hh))), col = "red") box() # Example with horizontal bars, grid and logarithmic x axis barplot2(1:10 , log = "x", plot.grid = TRUE, grid.inc = 10, xlim = c(0.5, 20), horiz = TRUE, cex.axis = 0.9, prcol = "gray95") box() # Bar shading example barplot2(VADeaths, angle = 15 + 10 * 1:5, density = 20, col = "black", legend = rownames(VADeaths)) title(main = list("Death Rates in Virginia", font = 4)) # border : barplot2(VADeaths, border = "dark blue") # } # NOT RUN { <!-- % lwd = 2 << not passed --> # } # NOT RUN { <!-- %notyet barplot(VADeaths, inside = FALSE, main = "barplot(*, inside=FALSE)") --> # }