Available only on Windows.
A graphics device is opened. For
X11 this is a window on the current
Windows display: the multiple names are for compatibility with other
win.metafile prints to a file and
the Windows print system.
windows(width, height, pointsize, record, rescale, xpinch, ypinch, bg, canvas, gamma, xpos, ypos, buffered, title, restoreConsole, clickToConfirm, fillOddEven, family, antialias)
win.graph(width, height, pointsize)
win.metafile(filename = "", width = 7, height = 7, pointsize = 12, family, restoreConsole = TRUE)
win.print(width = 7, height = 7, pointsize = 12, printer = "", family, antialias, restoreConsole = TRUE)
the (nominal) width and height of the canvas of
the plotting window in inches. Default
the default pointsize of plotted text, interpreted as
big points (1/72 inch). Values are rounded to the nearest integer:
values less than or equal to zero are reset to
logical: sets the initial state of the flag for
recording plots. Default
character, one of
c("R", "fit", "fixed").
Controls the action for resizing of the device. Default
"R". See the ‘Resizing options’ section.
double. Pixels per inch, horizontally and
NA_real_, which means to take the
value from Windows.
color. The initial background color. Default
color. The color of the canvas which is visible
when the background color is transparent. Should be a solid color
(and any alpha value will be ignored). Default
gamma correction fudge factor. Colours in R are sRGB; if your monitor does not conform to sRGB, you might be able to improve things by tweaking this parameter to apply additional gamma correction to the RGB channels. By default 1 (no additional gamma correction).
integer. Position of the top left of the window, in
pixels. Negative values are taken from the opposite edge of the
monitor. Missing values (the default) mean take the default from the
Rconsole file, which in turn defaults to
xpos = -25, ypos = 0: this puts the right edge of the window 25
pixels from the right edge of the monitor.
logical. Should the screen output be double-buffered?
character string, up to 100 bytes. With the default
"", a suitable title is created internally. A C-style format
for an integer will be substituted by the device number.
the name of the output file: it will be an enhanced
Windows metafile, usually given extension
.wmf. Up to 511 characters are allowed. The page number is
substituted if an integer format is included in the character
postscript for further details) and
path.expand) is performed. (The
result must be less than 600 characters long.) The default,
"", means the clipboard.
The name of a printer as known to Windows. The default causes a dialog box to come up for the user to choose a printer.
logical: see the ‘Details’ below. Defaults to
FALSE for screen devices.
logical: if true confirmation of a new frame
will be by clicking on the device rather than answering a problem in
the console. Default
logical controlling the polygon fill mode: see
polygon for details. Default
A length-one character vector specifying the default font family. See section ‘Fonts’.
A length-one character vector, requesting control
over font antialiasing. This is partially matched to
"gray". See the ‘Fonts’ section.
A plot device is opened: nothing is returned to the R interpreter.
If a screen device is re-sized, the default behaviour (
to redraw the plot(s) as if the new size had been specified
"fit" will rescale the existing plot(s) to
fit the new device region, preserving the aspect ratio. Using
"fixed" will leave the plot size unchanged, adding scrollbars
if part of the plot is obscured.
A graphics window will never be created at more than 85% of
the screen width or height, but can be resized to a larger size.
For the first two
rescale options the width and height are
rescaled proportionally if necessary, and if
rescale = "fit"
the plot(s) are rescaled accordingly. If
rescale = "fixed"
the initially displayed portion is selected within these constraints,
separately for width and height. In MDI mode,
the limit is 85% of the MDI client region.
strheight after a window
has been rescaled (when using
"fit") gives dimensions in the
original units, but only approximately as they are derived from the
metrics of the rescaled fonts (which are in integer sizes)
The displayed region may be bigger than the ‘paper’ size, and
area(s) outside the ‘paper’ are coloured in the Windows
application background colour. Graphics parameters such as
"din" refer to the scaled plot if rescaling is in effect.
The fonts used for text drawn in a Windows device may be controlled in
two ways. The file
R_HOME\etc\Rdevga can be used to
specify mappings for
par(font =) (or the grid equivalent).
Alternatively, a font family can be specified by a non-empty
family argument (or by e.g.
par(family =) in the graphics
package) and this will be used for fonts 1:4 via the Windows font
How the fonts look depends on the antialiasing settings, both through
antialias argument and the machine settings. These are
hints to Windows GDI that may not be able to be followed, but
antialias = "none" should ensure that no antialiasing is used.
For a screen device the default depends on the machine settings: it
"cleartype" if that has been enabled. Note that the
greyscale antialiasing that is used only for small fonts (below about
9 pixels, around 7 points on a typical display).
When accessing a system through Remote Desktop, both the Remote Desktop settings and the user's local account settings are relevant to whether antialiasing is used.
Some fonts are intended only to be used with ClearType antialiasing,
for example the
Meiryo Japanese font.
This section describes the implementation of the conventions for graphics devices set out in the “R Internals Manual”.
The default device size is 7 inches square, although this is often incorrectly implemented by Windows: see ‘Details’.
Font sizes are in big points.
The default font family is Arial.
Line widths are as a multiple of 1/96 inch, with a minimum of one pixel.
The minimum radius of a circle is 1 pixel.
pch = "." with
cex = 1 corresponds to a rectangle of sides
the larger of one pixel and 0.01 inch.
Colours are interpreted via the unprofiled colour mapping of the graphics card -- this is assumed to conform to sRGB.
All these devices are implemented as variants of the same device.
All arguments of
windows have defaults set by
windows.options: the defaults given in the arguments section
are the defaults for the defaults. These defaults also apply to the
internal values of
The size of a window is computed from information provided about the
display: it depends on the system being configured accurately.
By default a screen device asks Windows for the number of pixels per
inch. This can be overridden (it is often wrong) by specifying
ypinch, most conveniently via
windows.options. For example, a 13.3 inch 1280x800
screen (a typical laptop display) was reported as 96 dpi even though
it is physically about 114 dpi.
The different colours need to be distinguished carefully. Areas
outside the device region are coloured in the Windows application background
colour. The device region is coloured in the canvas colour. This is
over-painted by the background colour of a plot when a new page is
called for, but that background colour can be transparent (and is by
default). One difference between setting the canvas colour and the
background colour is that when a plot is saved the background
colour is copied but the canvas colour is not. The argument
sets the initial value of
par("bg") in base graphics and
gpar("fill") in grid graphics
Recorded plot histories are of class
"SavedPlots". They have a
"recordedplot" they can be replayed by printing them:
recordPlot. The active plot history is stored in
.SavedPlots in the workspace.
When a screen device is double-buffered (the default) the
screen is updated 100ms after last plotting call or every 500ms during
continuous plotting. These times can be altered by setting
options("windowsTimeout") to a vector of two integers before
opening the device.
Line widths as controlled by
par(lwd =) are in multiples of
1/96inch. Multiples less than 1 are allowed, down to one pixel width.
win.metafile only one plot is allowed per file, and Windows
seems to disallow reusing the file. So the only way to allow
multiple plots is to use a parametrized
filename as in the
example. If the
filename is omitted (or specified as
""), the output is copied to the clipboard when the device is
restoreConsole argument is a temporary fix for a problem
in the current implementation of several Windows graphics devices,
and is likely to be removed in an upcoming release. If set to
FALSE, the console will not receive the focus after the new
device is opened.
There is support for semi-transparent colours of lines, fills and text on the screen devices. These work for saving (from the ‘File’ menu) to PDF, PNG, BMP, JPEG and TIFF, but will be ignored if saving to Metafile and PostScript. Limitations in the underlying Windows API mean that a semi-transparent object must be contained strictly within the device region (allowing for line widths and joins).