barplot
Bar Plots
Creates a bar plot with vertical or horizontal bars.
 Keywords
 hplot
Usage
barplot(height, ...)
"barplot"(height, width = 1, space = NULL, names.arg = NULL, legend.text = NULL, beside = FALSE, horiz = FALSE, density = NULL, angle = 45, col = NULL, border = par("fg"), main = NULL, sub = NULL, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL, xlim = NULL, ylim = NULL, xpd = TRUE, log = "", axes = TRUE, axisnames = TRUE, cex.axis = par("cex.axis"), cex.names = par("cex.axis"), inside = TRUE, plot = TRUE, axis.lty = 0, offset = 0, add = FALSE, args.legend = NULL, ...)
Arguments
 height
 either a vector or matrix of values describing the
bars which make up the plot. If
height
is a vector, the plot consists of a sequence of rectangular bars with heights given by the values in the vector. Ifheight
is a matrix andbeside
isFALSE
then each bar of the plot corresponds to a column ofheight
, with the values in the column giving the heights of stacked subbars making up the bar. Ifheight
is a matrix andbeside
isTRUE
, then the values in each column are juxtaposed rather than stacked.  width
 optional vector of bar widths. Recycled to length the
number of bars drawn. Specifying a single value will have no
visible effect unless
xlim
is specified.  space
 the amount of space (as a fraction of the average bar
width) left before each bar. May be given as a single number or
one number per bar. If
height
is a matrix andbeside
isTRUE
,space
may be specified by two numbers, where the first is the space between bars in the same group, and the second the space between the groups. If not given explicitly, it defaults toc(0,1)
ifheight
is a matrix andbeside
isTRUE
, and to 0.2 otherwise.  names.arg
 a vector of names to be plotted below each bar or
group of bars. If this argument is omitted, then the names are
taken from the
names
attribute ofheight
if this is a vector, or the column names if it is a matrix.  legend.text
 a vector of text used to construct a legend for
the plot, or a logical indicating whether a legend should be
included. This is only useful when
height
is a matrix. In that case given legend labels should correspond to the rows ofheight
; iflegend.text
is true, the row names ofheight
will be used as labels if they are nonnull.  beside
 a logical value. If
FALSE
, the columns ofheight
are portrayed as stacked bars, and ifTRUE
the columns are portrayed as juxtaposed bars.  horiz
 a logical value. If
FALSE
, the bars are drawn vertically with the first bar to the left. IfTRUE
, the bars are drawn horizontally with the first at the bottom.  density
 a vector giving the density of shading lines, in
lines per inch, for the bars or bar components.
The default value of
NULL
means that no shading lines are drawn. Nonpositive values ofdensity
also inhibit the drawing of shading lines.  angle
 the slope of shading lines, given as an angle in degrees (counterclockwise), for the bars or bar components.
 col
 a vector of colors for the bars or bar components.
By default, grey is used if
height
is a vector, and a gammacorrected grey palette ifheight
is a matrix.  border
 the color to be used for the border of the bars.
Use
border = NA
to omit borders. If there are shading lines,border = TRUE
means use the same colour for the border as for the shading lines.  main,sub
 overall and sub title for the plot.
 xlab
 a label for the x axis.
 ylab
 a label for the y axis.
 xlim
 limits for the x axis.
 ylim
 limits for the y axis.
 xpd
 logical. Should bars be allowed to go outside region?
 log
 string specifying if axis scales should be logarithmic; see
plot.default
.  axes
 logical. If
TRUE
, a vertical (or horizontal, ifhoriz
is true) axis is drawn.  axisnames
 logical. If
TRUE
, and if there arenames.arg
(see above), the other axis is drawn (withlty = 0
) and labeled.  cex.axis
 expansion factor for numeric axis labels.
 cex.names
 expansion factor for axis names (bar labels).
 inside
 logical. If
TRUE
, the lines which divide adjacent (nonstacked!) bars will be drawn. Only applies whenspace = 0
(which it partly is whenbeside = TRUE
).  plot
 logical. If
FALSE
, nothing is plotted.  axis.lty
 the graphics parameter
lty
applied to the axis and tick marks of the categorical (default horizontal) axis. Note that by default the axis is suppressed.  offset
 a vector indicating how much the bars should be shifted relative to the x axis.
 add
 logical specifying if bars should be added to an already
existing plot; defaults to
FALSE
.  args.legend
 list of additional arguments to pass to
legend()
; names of the list are used as argument names. Only used iflegend.text
is supplied.  ...
 arguments to be passed to/from other methods. For the
default method these can include further arguments (such as
axes
,asp
andmain
) and graphical parameters (seepar
) which are passed toplot.window()
,title()
andaxis
.
Details
This is a generic function, it currently only has a default method. A formula interface may be added eventually.
Value

A numeric vector (or matrix, when
beside = TRUE
), say
mp
, giving the coordinates of all the bar midpoints
drawn, useful for adding to the graph.If beside
is true, use colMeans(mp)
for the
midpoints of each group of bars, see example.
References
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
Murrell, P. (2005) R Graphics. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.
See Also
Examples
library(graphics)
require(grDevices) # for colours
tN < table(Ni < stats::rpois(100, lambda = 5))
r < barplot(tN, col = rainbow(20))
# type = "h" plotting *is* 'bar'plot
lines(r, tN, type = "h", col = "red", lwd = 2)
barplot(tN, space = 1.5, axisnames = FALSE,
sub = "barplot(..., space= 1.5, axisnames = FALSE)")
barplot(VADeaths, plot = FALSE)
barplot(VADeaths, plot = FALSE, beside = TRUE)
mp < barplot(VADeaths) # default
tot < colMeans(VADeaths)
text(mp, tot + 3, format(tot), xpd = TRUE, col = "blue")
barplot(VADeaths, beside = TRUE,
col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose", "lightcyan",
"lavender", "cornsilk"),
legend = rownames(VADeaths), ylim = c(0, 100))
title(main = "Death Rates in Virginia", font.main = 4)
hh < t(VADeaths)[, 5:1]
mybarcol < "gray20"
mp < barplot(hh, beside = TRUE,
col = c("lightblue", "mistyrose",
"lightcyan", "lavender"),
legend = colnames(VADeaths), ylim = c(0,100),
main = "Death Rates in Virginia", font.main = 4,
sub = "Faked upper 2*sigma error bars", col.sub = mybarcol,
cex.names = 1.5)
segments(mp, hh, mp, hh + 2*sqrt(1000*hh/100), col = mybarcol, lwd = 1.5)
stopifnot(dim(mp) == dim(hh)) # corresponding matrices
mtext(side = 1, at = colMeans(mp), line = 2,
text = paste("Mean", formatC(colMeans(hh))), col = "red")
# Bar shading example
barplot(VADeaths, angle = 15+10*1:5, density = 20, col = "black",
legend = rownames(VADeaths))
title(main = list("Death Rates in Virginia", font = 4))
# border :
barplot(VADeaths, border = "dark blue")
# log scales (not much sense here):
barplot(tN, col = heat.colors(12), log = "y")
barplot(tN, col = gray.colors(20), log = "xy")
# args.legend
barplot(height = cbind(x = c(465, 91) / 465 * 100,
y = c(840, 200) / 840 * 100,
z = c(37, 17) / 37 * 100),
beside = FALSE,
width = c(465, 840, 37),
col = c(1, 2),
legend.text = c("A", "B"),
args.legend = list(x = "topleft"))
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