graphics (version 3.5.2)

# stars: Star (Spider/Radar) Plots and Segment Diagrams

## Description

Draw star plots or segment diagrams of a multivariate data set. With one single location, also draws ‘spider’ (or ‘radar’) plots.

## Usage

```stars(x, full = TRUE, scale = TRUE, radius = TRUE,
labels = dimnames(x)[[1]], locations = NULL,
nrow = NULL, ncol = NULL, len = 1,
key.loc = NULL, key.labels = dimnames(x)[[2]],
key.xpd = TRUE,
xlim = NULL, ylim = NULL, flip.labels = NULL,
draw.segments = FALSE,
col.segments = 1:n.seg, col.stars = NA, col.lines = NA,
axes = FALSE, frame.plot = axes,
main = NULL, sub = NULL, xlab = "", ylab = "",
cex = 0.8, lwd = 0.25, lty = par("lty"), xpd = FALSE,
mar = pmin(par("mar"),
1.1+ c(2*axes+ (xlab != ""),
2*axes+ (ylab != ""), 1, 0)),
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE, …)```

## Arguments

x

matrix or data frame of data. One star or segment plot will be produced for each row of `x`. Missing values (`NA`) are allowed, but they are treated as if they were 0 (after scaling, if relevant).

full

logical flag: if `TRUE`, the segment plots will occupy a full circle. Otherwise, they occupy the (upper) semicircle only.

scale

logical flag: if `TRUE`, the columns of the data matrix are scaled independently so that the maximum value in each column is 1 and the minimum is 0. If `FALSE`, the presumption is that the data have been scaled by some other algorithm to the range \([0, 1]\).

logical flag: in `TRUE`, the radii corresponding to each variable in the data will be drawn.

labels

vector of character strings for labeling the plots. Unlike the S function `stars`, no attempt is made to construct labels if `labels = NULL`.

locations

Either two column matrix with the x and y coordinates used to place each of the segment plots; or numeric of length 2 when all plots should be superimposed (for a ‘spider plot’). By default, `locations = NULL`, the segment plots will be placed in a rectangular grid.

nrow, ncol

integers giving the number of rows and columns to use when `locations` is `NULL`. By default, `nrow == ncol`, a square layout will be used.

len

scale factor for the length of radii or segments.

key.loc

vector with x and y coordinates of the unit key.

key.labels

vector of character strings for labeling the segments of the unit key. If omitted, the second component of `dimnames(x)` is used, if available.

key.xpd

clipping switch for the unit key (drawing and labeling), see `par("xpd")`.

xlim

vector with the range of x coordinates to plot.

ylim

vector with the range of y coordinates to plot.

flip.labels

logical indicating if the label locations should flip up and down from diagram to diagram. Defaults to a somewhat smart heuristic.

draw.segments

logical. If `TRUE` draw a segment diagram.

col.segments

color vector (integer or character, see `par`), each specifying a color for one of the segments (variables). Ignored if `draw.segments = FALSE`.

col.stars

color vector (integer or character, see `par`), each specifying a color for one of the stars (cases). Ignored if `draw.segments = TRUE`.

col.lines

color vector (integer or character, see `par`), each specifying a color for one of the lines (cases). Ignored if `draw.segments = TRUE`.

axes

logical flag: if `TRUE` axes are added to the plot.

frame.plot

logical flag: if `TRUE`, the plot region is framed.

main

a main title for the plot.

sub

a sub title for the plot.

xlab

a label for the x axis.

ylab

a label for the y axis.

cex

character expansion factor for the labels.

lwd

line width used for drawing.

lty

line type used for drawing.

xpd

logical or NA indicating if clipping should be done, see `par(xpd = .)`.

mar

argument to `par(mar = *)`, typically choosing smaller margins than by default.

further arguments, passed to the first call of `plot()`, see `plot.default` and to `box()` if `frame.plot` is true.

logical, if `TRUE` add stars to current plot.

plot

logical, if `FALSE`, nothing is plotted.

## Value

Returns the locations of the plots in a two column matrix, invisibly when `plot = TRUE`.

## Details

Missing values are treated as 0.

Each star plot or segment diagram represents one row of the input `x`. Variables (columns) start on the right and wind counterclockwise around the circle. The size of the (scaled) column is shown by the distance from the center to the point on the star or the radius of the segment representing the variable.

Only one page of output is produced.

## References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

`symbols` for another way to draw stars and other symbols.

## Examples

Run this code
``````# NOT RUN {
require(grDevices)
stars(mtcars[, 1:7], key.loc = c(14, 2),
main = "Motor Trend Cars : stars(*, full = F)", full = FALSE)
stars(mtcars[, 1:7], key.loc = c(14, 1.5),
main = "Motor Trend Cars : full stars()", flip.labels = FALSE)

stars(mtcars[, 1:7], locations = c(0, 0), radius = FALSE,
key.loc = c(0, 0), main = "Motor Trend Cars", lty = 2)

## Segment Diagrams:
palette(rainbow(12, s = 0.6, v = 0.75))
stars(mtcars[, 1:7], len = 0.8, key.loc = c(12, 1.5),
main = "Motor Trend Cars", draw.segments = TRUE)
stars(mtcars[, 1:7], len = 0.6, key.loc = c(1.5, 0),
main = "Motor Trend Cars", draw.segments = TRUE,
frame.plot = TRUE, nrow = 4, cex = .7)

## scale linearly (not affinely) to [0, 1]
USJudge <- apply(USJudgeRatings, 2, function(x) x/max(x))
Jnam <- row.names(USJudgeRatings)
Snam <- abbreviate(substring(Jnam, 1, regexpr("[,.]",Jnam) - 1), 7)
stars(USJudge, labels = Jnam, scale = FALSE,
key.loc = c(13, 1.5), main = "Judge not ...", len = 0.8)
stars(USJudge, labels = Snam, scale = FALSE,
key.loc = c(13, 1.5), radius = FALSE)

loc <- stars(USJudge, labels = NULL, scale = FALSE,
radius = FALSE, frame.plot = TRUE,
key.loc = c(13, 1.5), main = "Judge not ...", len = 1.2)
text(loc, Snam, col = "blue", cex = 0.8, xpd = TRUE)

## 'Segments':
stars(USJudge, draw.segments = TRUE, scale = FALSE, key.loc = c(13,1.5))

## 'Spider':
stars(USJudgeRatings, locations = c(0, 0), scale = FALSE, radius  =  FALSE,
col.stars = 1:10, key.loc = c(0, 0), main = "US Judges rated")
## Same as above, but with colored lines instead of filled polygons.
stars(USJudgeRatings, locations = c(0, 0), scale = FALSE, radius  =  FALSE,
col.lines = 1:10, key.loc = c(0, 0), main = "US Judges rated")