Create tables in LaTeX, HTML, Markdown and reStructuredText

A very simple table generator, and it is simple by design. It is not intended to replace any other R packages for making tables. The kable() function returns a single table for a single data object, and returns a table that contains multiple tables if the input object is a list of data objects. The kables() function is similar to kable(x) when x is a list of data objects, but kables() accepts a list of kable() values directly instead of data objects (see examples below).

  digits = getOption("digits"),
  row.names = NA,
  col.names = NA,
  caption = NULL,
  label = NULL,
  format.args = list(),
  escape = TRUE,

kables(x, format, caption = NULL, label = NULL)


For kable(), x is an R object, which is typically a matrix or data frame. For kables(), a list with each element being a returned value from kable().


A character string. Possible values are latex, html, pipe (Pandoc's pipe tables), simple (Pandoc's simple tables), and rst. The value of this argument will be automatically determined if the function is called within a knitr document. The format value can also be set in the global option knitr.table.format. If format is a function, it must return a character string.


Maximum number of digits for numeric columns, passed to round(). This can also be a vector of length ncol(x), to set the number of digits for individual columns.


Logical: whether to include row names. By default, row names are included if rownames(x) is neither NULL nor identical to 1:nrow(x).


A character vector of column names to be used in the table.


Column alignment: a character vector consisting of 'l' (left), 'c' (center) and/or 'r' (right). By default or if align = NULL, numeric columns are right-aligned, and other columns are left-aligned. If length(align) == 1L, the string will be expanded to a vector of individual letters, e.g. 'clc' becomes c('c', 'l', 'c'), unless the output format is LaTeX.


The table caption.


The table reference label. By default, the label is obtained from knitr::opts_current$get('label').


A list of arguments to be passed to format() to format table values, e.g. list(big.mark = ',').


Boolean; whether to escape special characters when producing HTML or LaTeX tables. When escape = FALSE, you have to make sure that special characters will not trigger syntax errors in LaTeX or HTML.


Other arguments (see Examples).


Missing values (NA) in the table are displayed as NA by default. If you want to display them with other characters, you can set the option knitr.kable.NA, e.g. options(knitr.kable.NA = '') to hide NA values.


A character vector of the table source code.


When using kable() as a top-level expression, you do not need to explicitly print() it due to R's automatic implicit printing. When it is wrapped inside other expressions (such as a for loop), you must explicitly print(kable(...)).


See https://github.com/yihui/knitr-examples/blob/master/091-knitr-table.Rnw for some examples in LaTeX, but they also apply to other document formats.

See Also

Other R packages such as huxtable, xtable, kableExtra, and tables for HTML and LaTeX tables, and ascii and pander for different flavors of markdown output and some advanced features and table styles.

  • kable
  • kables
d1 = head(iris)
d2 = head(mtcars)
# pipe tables by default
kable(d2[, 1:5])
# no inner padding
kable(d2, format = "pipe", padding = 0)
# more padding
kable(d2, format = "pipe", padding = 2)
kable(d1, format = "latex")
kable(d1, format = "html")
kable(d1, format = "latex", caption = "Title of the table")
kable(d1, format = "html", caption = "Title of the table")
# use the booktabs package
kable(mtcars, format = "latex", booktabs = TRUE)
# use the longtable package
kable(matrix(1000, ncol = 5), format = "latex", digits = 2, longtable = TRUE)
# change LaTeX default table environment
kable(d1, format = "latex", caption = "My table", table.envir = "table*")
# add some table attributes
kable(d1, format = "html", table.attr = "id=\"mytable\"")
# reST output
kable(d2, format = "rst")
# no row names
kable(d2, format = "rst", row.names = FALSE)
# Pandoc simple tables
kable(d2, format = "simple", caption = "Title of the table")
# format numbers using , as decimal point, and ' as thousands separator
x = as.data.frame(matrix(rnorm(60, 1e+06, 10000), 10))
kable(x, format.args = list(decimal.mark = ",", big.mark = "'"))
# save the value
x = kable(d2, format = "html")
cat(x, sep = "\n")
# can also set options(knitr.table.format = 'html') so that the output is HTML

# multiple tables via either kable(list(x1, x2)) or kables(list(kable(x1),
# kable(x2)))
kable(list(d1, d2), caption = "A tale of two tables")
kables(list(kable(d1, align = "l"), kable(d2)), caption = "A tale of two tables")
# }
Documentation reproduced from package knitr, version 1.30, License: GPL

Community examples

kkk1452@naver.com at Jun 14, 2019 knitr v1.23

kable(head(mtcars), format = "rst", row.names = FALSE)