# B_03_histogram

##### Histograms and Kernel Density Plots

Draw Histograms and Kernel Density Plots, possibly conditioned on other variables.

- Keywords
- hplot

##### Usage

```
histogram(x, data, …)
densityplot(x, data, …)
# S3 method for formula
histogram(x,
data,
allow.multiple, outer = TRUE,
auto.key = FALSE,
aspect = "fill",
panel = lattice.getOption("panel.histogram"),
prepanel, scales, strip, groups,
xlab, xlim, ylab, ylim,
type = c("percent", "count", "density"),
nint = if (is.factor(x)) nlevels(x)
else round(log2(length(x)) + 1),
endpoints = extend.limits(range(as.numeric(x),
finite = TRUE), prop = 0.04),
breaks,
equal.widths = TRUE,
drop.unused.levels =
lattice.getOption("drop.unused.levels"),
…,
lattice.options = NULL,
default.scales = list(),
default.prepanel =
lattice.getOption("prepanel.default.histogram"),
subscripts,
subset)
```# S3 method for numeric
histogram(x, data = NULL, xlab, …)
# S3 method for factor
histogram(x, data = NULL, xlab, …)

# S3 method for formula
densityplot(x,
data,
allow.multiple = is.null(groups) || outer,
outer = !is.null(groups),
auto.key = FALSE,
aspect = "fill",
panel = lattice.getOption("panel.densityplot"),
prepanel, scales, strip, groups, weights,
xlab, xlim, ylab, ylim,
bw, adjust, kernel, window, width, give.Rkern,
n = 512, from, to, cut, na.rm,
drop.unused.levels =
lattice.getOption("drop.unused.levels"),
…,
lattice.options = NULL,
default.scales = list(),
default.prepanel =
lattice.getOption("prepanel.default.densityplot"),
subscripts,
subset)
# S3 method for numeric
densityplot(x, data = NULL, xlab, …)

do.breaks(endpoints, nint)

##### Arguments

- x
The object on which method dispatch is carried out.

For the

`formula`

method,`x`

can be a formula of the form`~ x | g1 * g2 * …`

, indicating that histograms or kernel density estimates of the`x`

variable should be produced conditioned on the levels of the (optional) variables`g1`

,`g2`

, ….`x`

should be numeric (or possibly a factor in the case of`histogram`

), and each of`g1`

,`g2`

, … should be either factors or shingles.As a special case, the right hand side of the formula can contain more than one term separated by ‘+’ signs (e.g.,

`~ x1 + x2 | g1 * g2`

). What happens in this case is described in the documentation for`xyplot`

. Note that in either form, all the terms in the formula must have the same length after evaluation.For the

`numeric`

and`factor`

methods,`x`

is the variable whose histogram or Kernel density estimate is drawn. Conditioning is not allowed in these cases.- data
For the

`formula`

method, an optional data source (usually a data frame) in which variables are to be evaluated (see`xyplot`

for details).`data`

should not be specified for the other methods, and is ignored with a warning if it is.- type
A character string indicating the type of histogram that is to be drawn.

`"percent"`

and`"count"`

give relative frequency and frequency histograms respectively, and can be misleading when breakpoints are not equally spaced.`"density"`

produces a density histogram.`type`

defaults to`"density"`

when the breakpoints are unequally spaced, and when`breaks`

is`NULL`

or a function, and to`"percent"`

otherwise.- nint
An integer specifying the number of histogram bins, applicable only when

`breaks`

is unspecified or`NULL`

in the call. Ignored when the variable being plotted is a factor.- endpoints
A numeric vector of length 2 indicating the range of x-values that is to be covered by the histogram. This applies only when

`breaks`

is unspecified and the variable being plotted is not a factor. In`do.breaks`

, this specifies the interval that is to be divided up.- breaks
Usually a numeric vector of length (number of bins + 1) defining the breakpoints of the bins. Note that when breakpoints are not equally spaced, the only value of

`type`

that makes sense is density.When

`breaks`

is unspecified, the value of`lattice.getOption("histogram.breaks")`

is first checked. If this value is`NULL`

, then the default is to usebreaks = seq_len(1 + nlevels(x)) - 0.5

when

`x`

is a factor, andbreaks = do.breaks(endpoints, nint)

otherwise. Breakpoints calculated in such a manner are used in all panels. If the retrieved value is not

`NULL`

, or if`breaks`

is explicitly specified, it affects the display in each panel independently. Valid values are those accepted as the`breaks`

argument in`hist`

. In particular, this allows specification of`breaks`

as an integer giving the number of bins (similar to`nint`

), as a character string denoting a method, or as a function.When specified explicitly, a special value of

`breaks`

is`NULL`

, in which case the number of bins is determined by`nint`

and then breakpoints are chosen according to the value of`equal.widths`

.- equal.widths
A logical flag, relevant only when

`breaks=NULL`

. If`TRUE`

, equally spaced bins will be selected, otherwise, approximately equal area bins will be selected (typically producing unequally spaced breakpoints).- n
Integer, giving the number of points at which the kernel density is to be evaluated. Passed on as an argument to

`density`

.- panel
A function, called once for each panel, that uses the packet (subset of panel variables) corresponding to the panel to create a display. The default panel functions

`panel.histogram`

and`panel.densityplot`

are documented separately, and have arguments that can be used to customize its output in various ways. Such arguments can usually be directly supplied to the high-level function.- allow.multiple, outer
See

`xyplot`

.- auto.key
See

`xyplot`

.- aspect
See

`xyplot`

.- prepanel
See

`xyplot`

.- scales
See

`xyplot`

.- strip
See

`xyplot`

.- groups
See

`xyplot`

. Note that the default panel function for`histogram`

does not support grouped displays, whereas the one for`densityplot`

does.- xlab, ylab
See

`xyplot`

.- xlim, ylim
See

`xyplot`

.- drop.unused.levels
See

`xyplot`

.- lattice.options
See

`xyplot`

.- default.scales
See

`xyplot`

.- subscripts
See

`xyplot`

.- subset
See

`xyplot`

.- default.prepanel
Fallback prepanel function. See

`xyplot`

.- weights
numeric vector of weights for the density calculations, evaluated in the non-standard manner used for

`groups`

and terms in the formula, if any. If this is specified, it is subsetted using`subscripts`

inside the panel function to match it to the corresponding`x`

values.At the time of writing,

`weights`

do not work in conjunction with an extended formula specification (this is not too hard to fix, so just bug the maintainer if you need this feature).- bw, adjust, width
Arguments controlling bandwidth. Passed on as arguments to

`density`

.- kernel, window
The choice of kernel. Passed on as arguments to

`density`

.- give.Rkern
Logical flag, passed on as argument to

`density`

. This argument is made available only for ease of implementation, and will produce an error if`TRUE`

.- from, to, cut
Controls range over which density is evaluated. Passed on as arguments to

`density`

.- na.rm
Logical flag specifying whether

`NA`

values should be ignored. Passed on as argument to`density`

, but unlike in`density`

, the default is`TRUE`

.- …
Further arguments. See corresponding entry in

`xyplot`

for non-trivial details.

##### Details

`histogram`

draws Conditional Histograms, and `densityplot`

draws Conditional Kernel Density Plots. The default panel function
uses the `density`

function to compute the density
estimate, and all arguments accepted by `density`

can be
specified in the call to `densityplot`

to control the output.
See documentation of `density`

for details.

These and all other high level Trellis functions have several
arguments in common. These are extensively documented only in the
help page for `xyplot`

, which should be consulted to learn more
detailed usage.

`do.breaks`

is an utility function that calculates breakpoints
given an interval and the number of pieces to break it into.

##### Value

An object of class `"trellis"`

. The
`update`

method can be used to
update components of the object and the
`print`

method (usually called by
default) will plot it on an appropriate plotting device.

##### Note

The form of the arguments accepted by the default panel function
`panel.histogram`

is different from that in S-PLUS. Whereas
S-PLUS calculates the heights inside `histogram`

and passes only
the breakpoints and the heights to the panel function, lattice
simply passes along the original variable `x`

along with the
breakpoints. This approach is more flexible; see the example below
with an estimated density superimposed over the histogram.

##### References

Sarkar, Deepayan (2008) *Lattice: Multivariate Data
Visualization with R*, Springer.
http://lmdvr.r-forge.r-project.org/

##### See Also

`xyplot`

,
`panel.histogram`

,
`density`

,
`panel.densityplot`

,
`panel.mathdensity`

,
`Lattice`

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
require(stats)
histogram( ~ height | voice.part, data = singer, nint = 17,
endpoints = c(59.5, 76.5), layout = c(2,4), aspect = 1,
xlab = "Height (inches)")
histogram( ~ height | voice.part, data = singer,
xlab = "Height (inches)", type = "density",
panel = function(x, ...) {
panel.histogram(x, ...)
panel.mathdensity(dmath = dnorm, col = "black",
args = list(mean=mean(x),sd=sd(x)))
} )
densityplot( ~ height | voice.part, data = singer, layout = c(2, 4),
xlab = "Height (inches)", bw = 5)
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package lattice, version 0.20-40, License: GPL (>= 2)*