Individual Tree Detection Algorithm

This function is made to be used in tree_detection. It implements an algorithm for tree detection based on a local maximum filter. The windows size can be fixed or variable and its shape can be square or circular. The internal algorithm works either with a raster or a point cloud. It is deeply inspired from Popescu & Wynne (2004) (see references).

lmf(ws, hmin = 2, shape = c("circular", "square"))

numeric or function. Length or diameter of the moving window used to the detect the local maxima in the unit of the input data (usually meters). If it is numeric a fixed window size is used. If it is a function, the function determines the size of the window at any given location on the canopy. The function should take the height of a given pixel or points as its only argument and return the desired size of the search window when centered on that pixel/point.


numeric. Minimum height of a tree. Threshold below which a pixel or a point cannot be a local maxima. Default is 2.


character. Shape of the moving windows used to find the local maxima. Can be "square" or "circular".


Popescu, Sorin & Wynne, Randolph. (2004). Seeing the Trees in the Forest: Using Lidar and Multispectral Data Fusion with Local Filtering and Variable Window Size for Estimating Tree Height. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 70. 589-604. 10.14358/PERS.70.5.589.

See Also

Other individual tree detection algorithms: manual

  • lmf
LASfile <- system.file("extdata", "MixedConifer.laz", package="lidR")
las = readLAS(LASfile, select = "xyz", filter = "-drop_z_below 0")

# point-cloud-based
# =================

# 5x5 m fixed windows size
ttops = tree_detection(las, lmf(5))

x = plot(las)
add_treetops3d(x, ttops)

# variable windows size
f = function(x) { x * 0.07 + 3}
ttops = tree_detection(las, lmf(f))

x = plot(las)
add_treetops3d(x, ttops)

# raster-based
# ============

# 5x5 m fixed windows size
chm = grid_canopy(las, res = 1, p2r(0.15))
kernel = matrix(1,3,3)
chm = raster::focal(chm, w = kernel, fun = median, na.rm = TRUE)

ttops = tree_detection(chm, lmf(5))

raster::plot(chm, col = height.colors(30))
sp::plot(ttops, add = TRUE)

# variable windows size
f = function(x) { x * 0.07 + 3 }
ttops = tree_detection(chm, lmf(f))

raster::plot(chm, col = height.colors(30))
sp::plot(ttops, add = TRUE)
# }
Documentation reproduced from package lidR, version 2.0.0, License: GPL-3

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